Skip to main content

Table 4 Risk of oesophageal carcinoma associated with the modifiable life style related factors

From: Novel risk factors for primary prevention of oesophageal carcinoma: a case-control study from Sri Lanka

Characteristic Cases (N = 49) Controls (N = 196) Non-adjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
No. % No. %
Dietary fibre
 Sub-optimal 22 44.9 15 7.7 9.83 (4.6–21.2) 3.58 (1.1–12.3)
 Optimal (reference)a 27 55.1 181 92.3 1.0 1.0
Anti-oxidants
 Sub-optimal 32 65.3 44 22.4 6.5 (3.3–12.8) 7.0 (2.2–22.5)
 Optimal (reference)a 17 34.7 152 77.6 1.0 1.0
Deep fried food
 Sub-optimalb 26 53.1 44 22.4 3.91 (2.0–7.5) 6.68 (2.0–22.6)
 Optimal (reference)a 23 46.9 152 77.6 1.0 1.0
Beverages (tea/coffee) at extremely hot temperatures
 Yes 21 42.9 9 4.6 15.6 (6.5–37.4) Excluded from LRc
 No (reference)a 28 57.1 187 95.4 1.0
Meals containing excessive amount of chillies
 Yes 36 73.5 15 7.7 33.4 (14.7–76.2) Excluded from LRc
 No (reference)a 13 26.5 181 92.3 1.0
Food/drink with excessive colouring
 Yes 40 81.6 34 17.3 21.2 (9.4–47.7) Excluded from LRc
 No (reference)a 9 18.4 162 82.7 1.0
Alcohol consumption
 Yes 30 61.2 45 23.0 5.3 (2.7–10.3) Excluded from LRc
 No (reference)a 19 38.8 151 77.0 1.0
Risk drinking category
 High risk drinking 27 55.1 18 9.2 12.14 (5.8–25.5) 11.7 (2.8–49.4)
 Low risk drinkingd 3 6.1 27 13.8   
 never consumersd (reference)a 19 38.8 151 77.0 1.0 1.0
Smoking status
 Ever smoker 28 57.1 21 10.7 11.1 (5.4–22.9) NSe
 Never smoker (reference)a 21 42.9 175 89.3 1.0  
Exposure to passive smoking
 Yes 32 65.3 24 12.2 13.49 (6.5–27.9) NSe
 No (reference)a 17 34.7 172 87.8 1.0  
Betel quid chewing
 Ever chewed 31 63.3 21 10.7 14.35 (6.8–30.0) 6.1 (2.0–20.0)
 Never chewed (reference)a 18 36.7 175 89.3 1.0 1.0
Lifetime total occupational activities (MET hours/week/year)f
 Low (< 1.0) 10 20.4 66 33.7 0.51 (0.2–1.1) NSe
 Average (1.0–218.1)g 17 34.7 91 46.4   
 High (> 218.1)a (reference)g 22 44.9 39 19.9 1.0  
Lifetime total household activities (MET hours/week/year)f
 Low (< 40.7) 26 53.1 35 17.9 5.2 (2.7–10.2) NSe
 Average (40.7–323.8)h 21 42.9 104 53.1   
 High (> 323.8)h (reference)a 2 4.1 57 29.1 1.0  
Lifetime total sports and exercise activities (MET hours/week/year)f
 Low (< 1.0) 39 79.6 111 56.6 2.99 (1.4–6.3) 5.83 (1.5–23.0)
 Average (1.0–40.0)i 5 10.2 30 15.3   
 High (> 40.0)i (reference)a 5 10.2 55 28.1 1.0 1.0
  1. aThe category having the lesser proportion of cases
  2. bSub-optimal consumption of deep fried food indicates over consumption levels
  3. cExcluded from the LR analysis due to large confidence interval (upper limit being > 30.0)
  4. dLow risk drinking and never consumer categories were amalgamated for univariate analysis
  5. eNot significant in the logistic regression model
  6. fThe highest and the lowest quartiles of the activity were considered as the cut off points
  7. g,h,iAverage and high levels of physical activity categories were amalgamated for univariate analysis