Skip to main content

Table 2 Overview of the candidate biomarkers for predicting the retinoid treatment response in various human malignancies

From: Traffic lights for retinoids in oncology: molecular markers of retinoid resistance and sensitivity and their use in the management of cancer differentiation therapy

Putative predictive biomarker Tumor type Experimental model Reference
Biomarkers indicating retinoid resistance
 MN1 overexpression AML 83 newly diagnosed patients (60 years or older) treated in the trial NCT00151255 [28]
 PML-RARA expression APL NB4 cell line [32]
 PLZF-RARA+RARA-PLZF expression APL Case reports of 6 patients with PLZF-RARA fusion genes with no clinically significant response to ATRA [42]
 IRF2BP2-RARA expression APL Case report of 1 patient resistant to ATRA [44]
 STAT5b-RARA expression APL Case report of 1 patient resistant to ATRA [43]
 PML L-type splicing variant in E5(−)E6(−) isoform APL Short report of 79 de novo patients [57]
 PML V-type splicing variant with spacer between PML-RARA APL Sequence analysis of RARα genomic region of 3 patients [61]
 FABP5 overexpression PDAC 14 patient-derived cell lines [71]
BC MCF-7 cell line [17]
 Truncated RARβ’ isoform expression BC MCF-7 cell line [78]
 ERBB2 expression BC MCF-7 and HER2/NEU transfected MCF-7 cell lines [79]
 CRABP1 expression BC FFPE breast tumor tissue samples, established cell lines [81]
 CRABP2 knockdown PDAC 14 patient-derived cell lines [71]
NF1 knockdown NBL Panel of 25 cell lines [91]
 HMGA2 expression NBL 4 established cell lines [96]
 UNC45 expression NBL F9 mouse embryo teratocarcinoma cell line [100]
Biomarkers indicating retinoid sensitivity
 NuMA-RARA expression APL Frozen bone marrow samples [40]
 NPM1-RARA expression APL Cultured bone marrow cells from patient harvested at time of relapse [41]
 PLZF-RARA expression APL Case report of 62-year-old patient [54]
 RARα receptor overexpression BC 2 established cell lines, tissue cultures of primary breast tumors, 42 established cell lines [76, 77]
 ZNF423 expression NBL Panel of 25 cell lines [91]
 PBX1 expression NBL 16 established cell lines, 3 independent clinical datasets (ganglioneuromas n = 7, low-risk NBL n = 11, intermediate-risk NBL n = 5) [88]
 HOXC9 expression NBL 3 established cell lines [89]
  1. AML acute myeloid leukemia, APL acute promyelocytic leukemia, PDAC pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, BC breast carcinoma, NBL neuroblastoma