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Table 4 Risk factors for non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) in HIV-infected patients (N = 1001)

From: Increased risk of non-AIDS-defining cancers in Asian HIV-infected patients: a long-term cohort study

Factors Crude HR (95% CI) P value Adjusted HRa (95% CI) Coefficienta (95% CI) P value
Age < 40 (years) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   
40–49 5.1 (2.2–11.6) < 0.001 5.4 (2.4–12.3) 1.7 (0.9–2.5) < 0.001
50–59 12.7 (5.8–27.7) < 0.001 15.3 (6.7–34.6) 2.7 (1.9–3.5) < 0.001
60–69 13.0 (5.0–34.1) < 0.001 17.1 (6.4–46.2) 2.8 (1.9–3.8) < 0.001
≥ 70 36.4 (12.8–103.7) < 0.001 47.3 (16.2–138.1) 3.9 (2.8–4.9) < 0.001
Sex (male) 1.3 (0.4–4.2) 0.653    
Alcohol drinker 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.876    
Smoker 4.5 (2.5–8.1) < 0.001 5.4 (3.0–9.8) 1.7 (1.1–2.3) < 0.001
HIV risk group, MSM or unknown 1 (reference)   1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
Heterosexuals 1.9 (1.0–3.7) 0.045 1.6 (0.8–3.2) 0.5 (−0.2–1.2) 0.142
Blood transmission 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 0.765 2.6 (1.2–5.8) 1.0 (0.1–1.8) 0.021
Injection drug use 9.1 (2.2–37.7) 0.002 5.4 (1.2–23.3) 1.7 (0.2–3.2) 0.025
CD4 < 200 (cells/μL) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.222    
HIV VL > 75,000 (log10 copies/mL) 1.00 (0.6–1.6) 0.972    
HBV infection 1.8 (1.0–3.3) 0.059 1.8 (1.0–3.5) 0.6 (−0.03–1.2) 0.060
HCV infection 1.6 (0.9–2.9) 0.120    
Hypertension 1.2 (0.6–2.5) 0.619    
Dyslipidemia 0.8 (0.3–1.7) 0.494    
Diabetes mellitus (uncomplicated) 1.5 (0.7–3.2) 0.337    
Diabetes mellitus (end-organ damage) 2.3 (0.8–6.3) 0.111    
Myocardial infarction 1.8 (0.2–12.8) 0.569    
Congestive heart failure 2.6 (0.6–10.7) 0.182    
Peripheral vascular disease NA* NA*    
Cerebrovascular disease 1.9 (0.5–7.8) 0.373    
Dementia 1.2 (0.2–8.7) 0.857    
COPD NA* NA*    
Connective tissue disease NA* NA*    
Peptic ulcer disease 1.1 (0.3–4.4) 0.921    
Chronic kidney disease 0.5 (0.2–2.1) 0.352    
Hemiplegia NA NA*    
Chronic liver disease (mild) 1.2 (0.6–2.5) 0.680    
Chronic liver disease (moderate to severe) 2.6 (1.1–6.6) 0.037    
  1. Note. *Statistical analysis could not be performed because there were no cases with the factor among patients with NADCs or those who died. aMultiple Cox’s proportional hazard modeling was used with backward elimination for factors that were found to be significant (p < 0.2) on univariate analysis. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, MSM men who have sex with men, VL viral load, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NADCs non-AIDS-defining cancers