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Table 1 Studies that investigated associations of colorectal cancer with small molecules in plasma or serum from prospective cohorts

From: Untargeted lipidomic features associated with colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort

Cohort Cases/Controls Follow-upa (y) Analytical method Design Exposure variable Likely associations Ref.
WHI-OS 835/835 5.2 LC-MS Targeted Choline and its metabolites TMAO (+); betaine/choline ratio (−) [26]
EPIC [1] 1367/2323 3.7 LC-MS Targeted Methionine and choline metabolites Methionine, choline, and betaine (−) [27]
EPIC [2] 95/95 14.7 LC-MS Targeted 8 Ultra-long-chain hydroxylated fatty acids All associations (−) diminished with time to diagnosis (reverse causality) [22]
EPIC [3] 1238/1238 3.8 Colorimetry and turbidimetry Targeted Triglycerides, cholesterol, and lipoproteins HDL (−) [19]
PLCO 254/254 7.8 LC-MS and GC-MS Semi-targeted 278 Annotated metabolites detected in > 80% of specimens Glycochenodeoxycholate (+) in women but not men [25]
  1. WHI-OS Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer, GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LC-MS liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, PLCO Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, TMAO trimethylamine-N-oxide, WHI-OS Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study, (+) positively associated with CRC, (−) negatively associated with CRC
  2. aMean period of follow-up