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Table 3 General characteristics of patients and pathological factors associated with the development of BCRL

From: Lymphovascular invasion and extranodal tumour extension are risk indicators of breast cancer related lymphoedema: an observational retrospective study with long-term follow-up

  HR 95% CI p-value
Infections 2.20 0.99–4.92 0.0540
Dyslipidaemia 0.22 0.05–0.95 0.0431
Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 1.09 0.65–1.84 0.7368
Estrogen receptor positive 13.0 2.31–72.8 0.0036
Progesterone receptor positive 0.44 0.15–1.28 0.1326
Hormone therapy 0.02 0.01–0.09 < 0.0001
Hormone therapy (time-dependent) 2.45 1.16–5.17 0.0187
Side Extranodal extension
 Right  Yes vs. No 3.38 1.53–7.47  
 Left  Yes vs. No 0.74 0.30–1.81  
Side Lymphovascular invasion
 Right  Yes vs. No 1.41 0.74–2.70  
 Left  Yes vs. No 3.80 1.58–9.16  
  1. The hazard ratio (HR) of developing BCRL was calculated using Cox Proportional Hazard Model