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Table 2 Association between breast cancer related lymphoedema and other clinicopathologic variables

From: Lymphovascular invasion and extranodal tumour extension are risk indicators of breast cancer related lymphoedema: an observational retrospective study with long-term follow-up

  BCRL No BCRL  
(n = 62) (n = 270) p-value
Side, left n (%) 41 (66.1) 130 (48.2) 0.0106
Histological type, n (%) 0.1734
 NST 55 (88.7) 220 (81.5)  
 Others 7 (11.3) 50 (18.5)  
T-staging, n (%)a 0.5922
 T1 39 (62.9) 157 (58.2)  
 T2 19 (30.7) 80 (29.6)  
 T3 2 (3.2) 10 (3.7)  
 T4 2 (3.2) 23 (8.5)  
N, n (%)b 0.1052
 N1 33 (53.2) 176 (65.2)  
 N2 13 (21.0) 53 (19.6)  
 N3 16 (25.8) 41 (15.2)  
G, n (%)c 0.6725
 1 3 (4.8) 22 (8.2)  
 2 33 (53.2) 139 (51.5)  
 3 26 (41.9) 109 (40.4)  
ER positive, n (%) 53 (85.5) 241 (89.3) 0.3998
PR positive, n (%) 49 (79.0) 226 (83.7) 0.3791
HER2 positive, n (%)d 9 (14.5) 22 (8.2) 0.1202
Ki67 positive, n (%)e 28 (45.2) 102 (37.8) 0.2828
Molecular subtype, n (%) 0.6807
 Luminal A 30 (48.4) 147 (54.4)  
 Luminal B (HER2+) 5 (8.1) 12 (4.4)  
 Luminal B (HER2-) 18 (29.0) 82 (30.4)  
 HER2-type 3 (4.8) 10 (3.7)  
 Basal 6 (9.7) 19 (7.0)  
ENE, n (%) 46 (74.2) 166 (61.5) 0.0603
N. metastatic lymph., median (Q1, Q3) 3 (1, 7) 2 (1, 5) 0.0470
Total n. lymph. Evaluated, median (Q1, Q3) 23 (19, 30) 23 (18, 29) 0.4557
% lymph. Metastatic, median (Q1, Q3) 11.1 (5.6, 31.8) 9.5 (4.5, 25) 0.2062
LVI, n (%) 29 (46.8) 80 (29.6) 0.0095
  1. Abbreviations: BCRL breast cancer related lymphoedema, NST invasive breast cancer of no special type, ER estrogen receptor, HER2 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, ENE extranodal extension, LVI lymphovascular invasion
  2. aTumor dimension (T) according to TNM classification was as follows: T1, Tumor ≤20 mm in greatest dimension; T2, Tumor > 20 mm but ≤50 mm in greatest dimension; T3, Tumor > 50 mm in greatest dimension; T4, Tumor of any size with direct extension to the chest wall and/or to the skin (ulceration or skin nodules)
  3. bPathologic lymph node status (pN) according to TNM classification was as follows: pN0, negative; pN1, 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes; pN2, metastases in 4–9 axillary lymph nodes; pN3, metastases in ≥10 axillary lymph nodes
  4. cGrading was established using the Nottingham histologic grading system
  5. dHER2 status was assessed using immunochemistry and chromogenic in-situ hybridization in borderline cases
  6. ePositivity for Ki67 was defined as ≥10%