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Table 1 Demographic data and treatment information of the patients included in this study, according to their breast cancer related lymphoedema status

From: Lymphovascular invasion and extranodal tumour extension are risk indicators of breast cancer related lymphoedema: an observational retrospective study with long-term follow-up

Side BCRL No BCRL p-value
Left Right Total Left Right Total
(n = 21) (n = 41) (n = 62) (n = 140) (n = 130) (n = 270)
Age at diagnosis, years, mean ± SD 60.4 ± 12.5 56.6 ± 13.0 57.9 ± 12.8 58.7 ± 13.0 60.4 ± 13.0 59.5 ± 13.0 0.4734
BMI, n (%)a 0.5432
 Underweight 0 1 (2.4) 1 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 1 (0.8) 5 (1.9)  
 Normal weight 14 (66.7) 13 (31.7) 27 (43.6) 66 (47.1) 55 (42.3) 121 (44.8)  
 Overweight 3 (14.3) 18 (43.9) 21 (33.9) 26 (18.6) 44 (33.8) 70 (25.9)  
 Obesity 4 (19.0) 9 (22.0) 13 (21.0) 44 (31.4) 30 (23.1) 74 (27.4)  
Menopause, n (%)b 0.2647
 Pre-menopausal 5 (23.8) 16 (39.0) 21 (33.9) 45 (32.1) 34 (26.2) 79 (29.3)  
 Peri-menopausal 0 0 0 (0.0) 5 (3.6) 5 (3.8) 10 (3.7)  
 Post-menopausal 16 (76.2) 25 (61.0) 41 (66.1) 90 (64.3) 91 (70.0) 181 (67.0)  
Axillary surgery, n (%) 0.0503
 Radical lymph node dissection 21 (100) 41 (100) 62 (100) 130 (92.8) 123 (94.6) 253 (93.7)  
 Sentinel lymph node dissection 0 0 0 10 (7.2) 7 (5.4) 17 (6.3)  
Radiotherapy, n (%) 0.3536
 Breast 11 (52.4) 22 (53.6) 33 (53.2) 76 (54.3) 72 (55.4) 148 (54.8)  
 Breast and supraclavicular fossa 1 (4.8) 6 (14.6) 7 (11.3) 7 (5.0) 7 (5.4) 14 (5.2)  
 Supraclavicular fossa and chest wall 4 (19.0) 4 (9.8) 8 (12.9) 22 (15.7) 17 (13.1) 39 (14.4)  
 No 5 (23.8) 9 (22.0) 14 (22.6) 35 (25.0) 34 (26.1) 69 (25.6)  
Chemotherapy, n (%) 0.0025
 Taxane-based protocol 11 (52.4) 27 (65.9) 38 (61.3) 61 (43.6) 40 (30.8) 101 (37.4)  
 Other protocols 1 (4.8) 4 (9.7) 5 (8.1) 14 (10.0) 14 (10.8) 28 (10.4)  
 No 9 (42.9) 10 (24.4) 19 (30.7) 65 (46.4) 76 (58.4) 141 (52.2)  
Hormone therapy, n (%) 0.0959
 Yes 16 (76.2) 34 (82.9) 50 (80.7) 128 (91.4) 111 (85.4) 239 (88.5)  
 No 5 (23.8) 7 (17.1) 12 (19.3) 12 (8.6) 19 (14.6) 31 (11.5)  
Trastuzumab, n (%) 0.0140
 Yes 2 (9.5) 7 (17.1) 9 (14.5) 7 (5.0) 8 (6.2) 15 (5.6)  
 No 19 (90.5) 34 (82.9) 53 (85.5) 133 (95.0) 122 (93.8) 255 (94.4)  
  1. Abbreviations: BCRL Breast cancer related lymphoedema, BMI Body Mass Index
  2. aBMI was stratified using the WHO International Classification of adult underweight, overweight and obesity, as follows: underweight, < 18.5 kg/m2; normal weight, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2; overweight, 25–29.99 kg/m2; obesity, ≥30 kg/m2
  3. bMenopausal status was defined according to WHO guidelines. Specifically, menopause is recognized to have occurred after 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea, for which there is no other obvious pathological or physiological cause; peri-menopause is defined as the period immediate prior to the menopause - when the endocrinological, biological, and clinical features of approaching menopause commence, for example variability in the menstrual cycle is increased - and the first 12 months after menopause; pre-menopausal status is used to describe the whole of the reproductive period prior to the menopause