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Table 1 Association of increased N-cadherin expression in cancer with clinicopathologic features and survival

From: N-cadherin in cancer metastasis, its emerging role in haematological malignancies and potential as a therapeutic target in cancer

Cancer type Cohort information & treatment details No. of patients N-cadherin detection method Association with clinicopathologic features Association with survival Reference
Epithelial cancers
 Breast cancer Pre-metastatic; resected 574 IHC High grade & LN metastasis Shorter PFS (U) [47]
Early-stage invasive 1902 IHC Earlier development of distant metastasis n/a [48]
Primary inoperable and LN negative 275 IHC n.s. Shorter OS (U) [49]
Invasive; no prior therapy 94 IHC High grade, late stage & LN metastasis n/a [50]
 Prostate cancer Clinically localised; radical prostatectomy 104 IHC Poor differentiation, seminal vesicle invasion & pelvic LN metastasis Shorter time to biochemical failure (U), clinical recurrence (M) & skeletal metastasis (U) [8]
Castration-resistant; transurethral resection 26 IHC Higher Gleason score & metastasis n/a [51]
Localised; no therapy prior to radical prostatectomy 157 IHC Later stage, higher PSA & Gleason score, seminal vesicle invasion and LN metastasis n/a [52]
Blood from cancer follow-up patients 179 Serum ELISA (sN-cad) Higher PSA n/a [53]
Radical prostatectomy, metformin-treated 49 IHC n/a Increased recurrence [54]
 Lung cancer Adenocarcinoma & squamous cell carcinoma; no therapy prior to surgery 68 IHC Higher TNM stage & poor differentiation Shorter OS (M) [55]
Primary adenocarcinoma; no therapy prior to surgery 147 IHC n/a Shorter OS (M) [56]
Surgical resection of adenocarcinoma; no prior therapy 57 qPCR LN metastasis n/a [57]
No post-operative surgery 186 IHC Higher TNM stage & metastasis n/a [58]
Adenocarcinoma & squamous cell carcinoma; blood collected prior to or up to 3 weeks after platinum-based therapy 43 IF (on CTCs) n/a Shorter PFS [59]
 Urothelial cancers Radical cystecomy with pelvic LN dissection, clinically nonmetastatic bladder cancer 433 IHC Higher clinical & pathologic tumour stage, LN metastasis & LN stage, lymphovascular invasion Shorter RFS (M), OS (U) & cancer-specific survival (U) [60]
Invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy; no prior treatment 30 qPCR n/a Shorter OS [61]
Transurethral resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer 115 IHC Higher incidence of intravesical recurrence Shorter intravesical RFS (M) [62]
Clinically-localised upper urinary tract carcinoma undergoing nephroureterectomy; cisplatin- based therapy in late-stage patients 59 IHC n/a Intravesical and extravesical RFS (M) [63]
 Liver cancer Resection of hepatocellular carcinoma 100 IHC Higher histologic grade, multifocal tumours & vascular invasion Shorter disease-free and OS [64]
Surgical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma 57 IHC n.s. Increased recurrence- rate within 2 years of resection [65]
Surgical resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (no prior therapy); adjuvant therapy in patients with recurrence 96 IHC Higher recurrence of vascular invasion Shorter OS [66]
 Head & neck cancer Surgical specimen of HNSCC, patients are +/− LN metastasis 119 IHC Greater tumour size, higher clinical stage & LN metastasis Shorter OS (M) [67]
Laryngeal, oripharyngeal & oral cancer; blood collected following HNSCC resection 10 IF n/a Shorter OS [68]
Radical surgery for laryngeal cancer; adjuvant therapy in 60% of cases 50 (on CTCs) IHC Higher grade Increased relapse [69]
Nasopharyngeal cancer 122 IHC LN involvement, distant metastasis & later clinical stage Shorter OS (nuclear N-cadherin) [70]
 Gastrointestinal tract cancer Colorectal cancer; no therapy prior to surgery 37 qPCR Local invasion, Dukes staging & vascular invasion n/a [71]
Colorectal cancer; no therapy prior to surgery 102 IHC Larger tumour size, poor differentiation, tumour invasion, LN metastasis & distant metastasis Shorter OS (M) & shorter disease-free survival [72]
Colon carcinoma; no therapy prior to surgery 90 IHC Greater depth of tumour invasion & higher TNM stage n/a [73]
Gastric cancer surgery with LN metastasis; no prior therapy 89 IHC (on LN) LN involvement, higher pathological stage, lymphatic invasion & venous invasion Shorter OS [74]
Curative surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma; no prior therapy, stage II patients received adjuvant therapy 146 IHC Haematogenous recurrence Shorter survival [75]
 Renal cancer Blood collected from metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients with prior nephrectomy and therapy 14 IF (on CTCs; also CK-) n/a Shorter PFS [76]
 Ovarian cancer Surgical specimens of high-grade serous carcinoma 167 IHC n/a Shorter PFS and OS (U) [77]
 Gallbladder cancer Adenocarcinoma (+/− surgery) 80 IHC Poor differentiation, larger tumour size, TNM stage, invasion & LN metastasis Shorter OS (M) [78]
Squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma (+/− surgery) 46 IHC Larger tumour size, invasion and LN metastasis Shorter OS (M) [78]
Non-epithelial solid cancers
 Melanoma Removal of primary melanoma, various stages of disease 394 IHC Increased Breslow thickness Distant metastasis-free survival (M; p = 0.13) [7]
 Sarcoma Surgical resection of osteosarcoma 107 qPCR Later stage and distant metastasis Shorter survival [79]
Blood collected from a variety of bone & soft tissue sarcoma patients 73 Serum ELISA (sN-cad) Larger tumour size & higher grade Shorter disease-free survival (M) & OS (U) [80]
Haematological malignancies
 Multiple myeloma Blood collected from newly- diagnosed patients; no prior therapy 84 Serum ELISA (sN-cad) n/a Shorter PFS and OS [81]
Bone marrow aspirate from newly-diagnosed patients; no prior therapy 14 qPCR (on CD38+/CD138+ tumour cells) n/a Shorter PFS [81]
  1. All clinicopathologic and survival data shown is positively associated with increased N-cadherin expression. All data is statistically significant (P < 0.05), unless otherwise indicated. Abbreviations: PFS Progression-free survival, RFS Recurrence-free survival, OS Overall survival, U Univariate analysis, M Multivariate analysis, IHC Immunohistochemistry, qPCR Quantitative PCR, IF Immunofluorescence, ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, sN-cad Soluble N-cadherin, PSA Prostate specific antigen, LN Lymph node, TNM Tumour, node and metastases, CTCs Circulating tumour cells, CK Cytokeratin, n/a Not applicable, n.s. Not significant