Skip to main content


Fig. 6 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 6

From: Biomarkers: paving stones on the road towards the personalized precision medicine for oral squamous cell carcinoma

Fig. 6

Microenvironmental heterogeneity. Tumor microenvironment mirrors the organism’s response to tumor cells. a. When anti-tumor cells such as CD4+/CD8+ T cells, DC cells, and NK cells infiltrate tumor tissues, tumor cells could be trapped in the local region and even induced to undergo apoptosis. b However, when enriched in or surrounding tumor tissues, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), Tregs, and CAFs can facilitate tumor growth and metastasis by lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis induced by them. Moreover, CAFs can generate a physical barrier to protect tumor cells from damage caused by drugs and ionizing radiation. As such, it is imperative to mine biomarkers used to evaluate the state of TILs and stromal cells

Back to article page