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Fig. 1 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 1

From: Biomarkers: paving stones on the road towards the personalized precision medicine for oral squamous cell carcinoma

Fig. 1

Biomarker discovery with high-throughput technology. The phase of biomarker discovery is fundamental stage for biomarker study in which the landscape of molecular alterations in samples from various sources should be screened. Proteins and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA are extracted from those samples, which contain almost all molecular information closely associated with cancer. Microarrays and NGS are the most important high-throughput approaches for testing nucleic acids. MS plays a key role in the high-throughput detection of proteins. Comprehensive information including on methylation, as well as genome, transcription, and protein profiles, could be output by these methods. Finally, biomarker models for different applications have been established and classified through data integration and systemic bioinformation analyses. However, strict and large-scale validation testing of these biomarker models is still awaited

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