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Table 6 Serum indicators of muscle damage during the WB-EMS intervention period

From: Effects of whole-body electromyostimulation combined with individualized nutritional support on body composition in patients with advanced cancer: a controlled pilot trial

Parameter Study week p-valueb
Baseline week 2 week 4 week 8 week 12 week 13
CK [U/l]a
 mean ± SD 104.2 ± 50.29 195.1 ± 204.4 209.9 ± 272.0 272.1 ± 211.4** 234.5 ± 181.5* 128.1 ± 66.5 0.002
 median 103.0 122.0 141.5 178.0 195.5 135.5
 range 33–192 34–817 39–1130 56–626 55–713 43–233
Mb [μg/l]a
 mean ± SD 76.5 ± 15.8 92.5 ± 33.3 90.5 ± 30.2 100.4 ± 32.7 93.5 ± 34.0 81.4 ± 24.4 0.080
 median 78.0 86.0 80.0 90.0 91.0 75.0
 range 42–102 52–182 42–166 73–190 62–187 48–136
  1. Statistically significant differences are marked in bold type and indicated by p < 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: CK Creatine kinase, Mb Myoglobin, WB-EMS Whole-body electromyostimulation
  3. aNormal values: CK < 190 U/l, Mb < 70 μg/l.
  4. bNonparametric repeated measures comparison over time (Friedman test) in the WB-EMS group (n = 14). CK values changed statistically significantly over time (p < 0.05) with significant differences of CK values at week 8 and 12 compared to baseline (Dunn’s multiple comparisons test; * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01). One week after last WB-EMS session (week 13) CK values were significantly decreased compared to week 8 (p ≤ 0.05). Data are presented as mean ± SD, median and range (minimum to maximum value)