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Table 5 Fatigue and quality of life of the study groups at baseline and week 12a

From: Effects of whole-body electromyostimulation combined with individualized nutritional support on body composition in patients with advanced cancer: a controlled pilot trial

Outcome Measure Study group n Baseline Week 12 Difference week 12 p b/c p d
FACIT-Fatigue Scale Control 18 33.11 ± 11.49 39.61 ± 7.69 6.50 ± 10.01 0.014 c 0.077
WB-EMS 52 36.81 ± 10.76 38.58 ± 9.74 1.77 ± 8.62 0.058b
EORTC QLQ-C30 Functional Scales
 Physical functioning Control 19 74.37 ± 20.81 77.32 ± 15.51 2.95 ± 16.54 0.623b 0.542
WB-EMS 55 78.55 ± 20.12 80.47 ± 20.90 1.93 ± 17.11 0.276b
 Role functioning Control 17 54.94 ± 27.56 66.65 ± 22.86 11.71 ± 31.79 0.149c 0.242
WB-EMS 55 63.62 ± 28.89 62.18 ± 30.15 − 1.44 ± 24.29 0.863b
 Emotional functioning Control 19 63.53 ± 25.57 63.53 ± 25.86 0.00 ± 23.69 0.850b 0.096
WB-EMS 53 66.62 ± 21.26 73.06 ± 21.41 6.43 ± 16.82 0.007 c
 Cognitive functioning Control 19 80.63 ± 21.71 85.05 ± 19.95 4.42 ± 20.69 0.265b 0.791
WB-EMS 53 78.00 ± 22.27 79.19 ± 24.01 1.19 ± 18.46 0.739b
 Social functioning Control 19 50.89 ± 30.24 61.37 ± 28.88 10.47 ± 27.96 0.096b 0.501
WB-EMS 53 58.89 ± 28.80 65.42 ± 28.42 6.53 ± 22.88 0.054b
EORTC QLQ-C30 Symptom Scales
 Pain Control 19 37.68 ± 30.81 16.58 ± 25.39 −21.11 ± 34.48 0.016 c 0.072
WB-EMS 54 25.24 ± 26.41 21.89 ± 28.87 − 3.35 ± 26.34 0.254b
 Dyspnea Control 18 27.78 ± 32.92 22.11 ± 27.98 −5.67 ± 26.20 0.196b 0.166
WB-EMS 55 22.95 ± 27.13 27.82 ± 31.31 4.87 ± 25.98 0.156b
 Insomnia Control 18 36.89 ± 30.07 29.61 ± 32.19 −7.28 ± 37.21 0.418c 0.606
WB-EMS 55 28.45 ± 32.40 25.38 ± 29.40 −3.07 ± 35.39 0.379b
 Appetite loss Control 18 40.72 ± 37.22 24.06 ± 32.00 − 16.67 ± 46.45 0.193b 0.051
WB-EMS 55 21.20 ± 31.06 15.72 ± 28.59 −5.47 ± 27.81 0.119b
 Constipation Control 19 22.84 ± 33.52 19.26 ± 30.08 −3.58 ± 35.12 0.619b 0.522
WB-EMS 53 16.32 ± 28.97 14.40 ± 24.87 −1.92 ± 30.94 0.617b
 Diarrhea Control 18 25.94 ± 29.39 25.94 ± 33.53 0.00 ± 25.70 1.000b 0.563
WB-EMS 53 21.32 ± 27.87 17.58 ± 25.03 −3.74 ± 28.25 0.591b
 Financial difficulties Control 19 22.79 ± 31.58 33.32 ± 38.54 10.53 ± 29.42 0.107b 0.206
WB-EMS 52 21.79 ± 27.21 21.12 ± 28.83 − 0.67 ± 29.87 0.711b
 Nausea/Vomiting Control 18 21.39 ± 24.06 15.72 ± 25.17 − 5.67 ± 37.00 0.524c 0.752
WB-EMS 55 12.72 ± 17.17 6.69 ± 13.06 −6.04 ± 18.19 0.032 b
 Fatigue Control 18 51.17 ± 22.49 33.89 ± 22.87 −17.28 ± 28.58 0.020 c 0.135
WB-EMS 55 43.05 ± 28.23 39.96 ± 27.89 −3.09 ± 25.01 0.185b
 Global Health Control 18 54.17 ± 19.52 66.67 ± 20.20 12.50 ± 24.77 0.047 c 0.157
WB-EMS 53 59.40 ± 18.19 61.49 ± 20.78 2.09 ± 19.63 0.247b
  1. Statistically significant differences are marked in bold type and indicated by p < 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: WB-EMS Whole-body electromyostimulation
  3. aIncludes patients with both baseline and post-test data. Data are presented as mean ± SD
  4. bComparison of intragroup differences in baseline and post-intervention data (Wilcoxon signed-rank test)
  5. cComparison of intragroup differences in baseline to 12-week post-intervention changes (paired samples t-test)
  6. dComparison of differences in baseline to 12-week post-intervention changes between the groups (Mann-Whitney-U-test)
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