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Table 2 Demographic and disease characteristics of the included patientsb

From: Effects of whole-body electromyostimulation combined with individualized nutritional support on body composition in patients with advanced cancer: a controlled pilot trial

Parameter WB-EMS n Control n p-value
Gender      0.270c
 Male 57 (59.4%)   17 (48.6%)   
 Female 39 (40.6%)   18 (51.4%)   
Age 60.3 ± 13.1 96 59.1 ± 11.6 35 0.541d
Functional status
 Performance status [Karnofsky index] 75.7 ± 10.1 96 76.6 ± 10.0 35 0.517d
 Hand grip strength [kg] 36.5 ± 12.0 88 38.8 ± 15.0 33 0.616d
 Six-minute walking distance [m] 505.7 ± 118.0 78 483.1 ± 126.8 31 0.378e
Nutritional status   96   35  
 Body weight [kg] 74.4 ± 14.9   74.9 ± 16.9   0.773d
 BMI [kg/m2] 24.9 ± 3.8   25.5 ± 5.2   0.707d
 Fat mass [%] 29.6 ± 7.5   29.9 ± 8.6   0.833e
 Fat free mass index [kg/m2] 17.5 ± 2.6   17.4 ± 3.2   0.864e
 Phase angle [°] 4.5 ± 0.8   4.5 ± 0.7   0.898e
 Hydration [%] 86.4 ± 11.5   86.3 ± 9.2   0.970d
 Skeletal muscle mass [kg] 23.5 ± 6.0   23.6 ± 7.0   0.950d
 Nutritional risk screening      0.210c
   < 3 35 (36.5%)   17 (48.6%)   
   ≥ 3 61 (63.5%)   18 (51.4%)   
 Nutritional therapy      0.539c
  Only dietary counseling 65 (67.7%)   21 (60.0%)   
  Oral supplementation 25 (26.0%)   11 (31.4%)   
  Feeding tube 2 (2.1%)   0 (0.0%)   
  Parenteral 4 (4.2%)   3 (8.6%)   
 Mean daily nutrient/caloric intake during participation [per kg body weight]   89   29  
  Carbohydrates [g] 3.4 ± 1.2   3.4 ± 1.5   0.567d
  Fat [g] 1.2 ± 0.5   1.3 ± 0.6   0.841d
  Protein [g] 1.3 ± 0.6   1.3 ± 0.5   0.604d
  Calories [kcal] 30.9 ± 9.3   32.1 ± 13.1   0.988d
Disease characteristics
 Cancer sites
  Head and Neck 4 (4.2%)   0 (0.0%)   
  Esophagus 1 (1.0%)   2 (5.7%)   
  Stomach 9 (9.4%)   1 (2.9%)   
  Colon 13 (13.5%)   8 (22.9%)   
  Rectum 6 (6.3%)   5 (14.3%)   
  Pancreas 5 (5.2%)   7 (20.0%)   
  Liver 3 (3.1%)   1 (2.9%)   
  Bile duct 2 (2.1%)   1 (2.9%)   
  Lung 15 (15.6%)   3 (8.6%)   
  Prostate 11 (11.5%)   0 (0.0%)   
  Kidney 7 (7.3%)   0 (0.0%)   
  Breast 12 (12.5%)   4 (11.4%)   
  Ovary 3 (3.1%)   1 (2.9%)   
  Others 5 (5.2%)   2 (5.7%)   
 UICC stage      0.165c
  III 28 (29.2%)   6 (17.1%)   
  IV 68 (70.8%)   29 (82.9%)   
 Ongoing anti-cancer therapy      0.082c
  Chemotherapy 46 (47.9%)   21 (60.0%)   
  Radiotherapy 7 (7.3%)   0 (0.0%)   
  Chemoradiation 3 (3.1%)   0 (0.0%)   
  Targeted therapy 14 (14.6%)   1 (2.9%)   
  Hormonal therapy 6 (6.3%)   1 (2.9%)   
  Chemotherapy + Targeted therapy 11 (11.5%)   10 (28.6%)   
  Chemotherapy + Hormonal therapy 4 (4.2%)   1 (2.9%)   
  Radiotherapy + Hormonal therapy 3 (3.1%)   0 (0.0%)   
  Others 2 (2.1%)   1 (2.9%)   
 Previous cancer-related surgery 68 (70.8%)   20 (57.1%)   0.140c
 Number of current medications 3.3 ± 2.7 96 3.8 ± 2.6 35 0.328d
  Comorbiditiesa
  Cardiovascular disease 30 (31.3%)   7 (20.0%)   0.206c
  Thyroid disease 27 (28.1%)   10 (28.6%)   0.960c
  Pulmonary disease 20 (20.8%)   11 (31.4%)   0.230c
  Diabetes mellitus 12 (12.5%)   4 (11.4%)   0.838c
  Renal failure 5 (5.2%)   2 (5.7%)   0.919c
  Liver disease 3 (3.1%)   3 (8.8%)   0.187c
  Pancreatitis 2 (2.1%)   1 (2.9%)   0.800c
Laboratory values
 Erythrocytes [×106/μl] 4.18 (2.62–5.30) 85 4.18 (3.48–5.10) 32 0.176e
 Hemoglobin [g/dl] 12.7 (7.7–15.0) 85 12.3 (8.8–15.4) 32 0.588d
 Hematocrit [%] 37.1 (22.8–45.7) 85 36.5 (28.2–44.8) 32 0.739e
 Leucocytes [× 103/μl] 5.1 (1.2–18.9) 85 5.8 (3.1–8.8) 32 0.349d
 Thrombocytes [× 103/μl] 209.0 (84.0–1014.0) 85 198.0 (74.0–444.1) 32 0.342d
 Creatinine [mg/dl] 0.85 (0.47–1.41) 81 0.82 (0.51–1.01) 30 0.120e
 Total protein [g/l] 66.3 (49.9–80.5) 65 68.5 (39.7–82.6) 22 0.232d
 Albumin [g/l] 40.7 (26.7–48.1) 66 41.7 (28.4–46.7) 22 0.528d
 CRP [mg/l] 5.2 (0.2–155.2) 78 5.2 (1.0–48.9) 30 0.880d
  1. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, CUP Cancer of unknown primary, WB-EMS Whole-body electromyostimulation
  2. aNote: Number of patients for comorbidities includes also patients with several comorbidities
  3. bData are presented in numbers and proportions (%) and as mean ± standard deviation. Laboratory values are expressed as median and range (minimum to maximum value). Statistically significant differences are indicated by p ≤ 0.05
  4. cPearson’s Chi-squared test
  5. dMann-Whitney-U-test
  6. eIndependent samples t-test
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