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Table 3 The mean DNA methylation levels in healthy women and breast cancer patients in different types of samples

From: Decreased methylation in the SNAI2 and ADAM23 genes associated with de-differentiation and haematogenous dissemination in breast cancers

  DNA methylation levels – controls
Mean ± std. deviation (in %)
DNA methylation levels – breast cancer patients
Mean ± std. deviation (in %)
Genes Peripheral blood cells Mammary glandsa Peripheral blood cells Primary tumour Lymph node metastasis
ADAM23 2.13 ± 0.39 4.89 ± 2.32 2.50 ± 0.64 9.98 ± 10.32 9.94 ± 10.89
uPA 1.29 ± 0.64 5.00 ± 3.80 2.20 ± 0.83 14.08 ± 16.88 9.45 ± 12.49
CXCL12 2.36 ± 0.52 4.00 ± 1.94 2.78 ± 1.14 13.41 ± 13.32 11.35 ± 9.81
TWIST1 4.44 ± 1.15 8.20 ± 6.29 4.15 ± 1.42 21.88 ± 16.68 15.23 ± 12.90
SNAI1 1.46 ± 0.58 3.80 ± 2.04 2.17 ± 1.01 6.04 ± 6.71 4.60 ± 2.04
SNAI2 2.37 ± 0.63 3.30 ± 1.34 3.46 ± 0.82 6.37 ± 4.49 5.44 ± 5.79
  1. aDonors of normal breast tissues were younger than breast cancer patients