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Table 1 Patient characteristics according to smoking history (n = 126)

From: PIK3CA mutation is a favorable prognostic factor in esophageal cancer: molecular profile by next-generation sequencing using surgically resected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue

Smoking status 0 (n = 14) 1 (n = 22) 2 (n = 30) 3 (n = 60) p-value
Median age (range) 63 (44–73) 64 (46–75) 63 (42–76) 64 (46–79) ** 0.3949
Gender
 Male 10 20 25 57 *0.04537
 Female 4 2 5 3  
Location
 Ce 1 0 1 0 *0.02068
 Ut 4 3 1 6  
 Mt 4 6 18 21  
 Lt 5 13 7 28  
 Ae 0 0 3 5  
Histology
 SCC 14 21 28 53 *0.642
 Others 0 1 2 7  
TNM (UICC6th)
 T1 1 2 0 2 *0.163
 T2 2 2 0 2  
 T3 11 18 30 54  
 T4 0 0 0 2  
 N0 4 5 11 10 *0.1923
 N1 10 17 19 50  
 M0 11 18 24 51 *0.7328
 M1a 2 2 1 4  
 M1b 1 2 5 5  
Adjuvant
 NAC 6 11 17 31 *0.8629
 No NAC 8 11 13 29  
HER2
 > median 4 12 17 31 *0.357
 < median 10 10 13 29  
MET
 > median 5 13 16 33 *0.5689
 < median 9 9 14 27  
EGFR
 > median 6 10 14 32 *0.8578
 < median 8 12 16 28  
ALK
 > median 6 14 13 29 *0.4895
 < median 8 8 17 31  
HGF
 > median 4 9 14 34 *0.2289
 < median 10 13 16 26  
TP53
 Wild type 7 8 7 20 *0.372
 Mutation 7 14 23 40  
APC
 Wild type 14 20 26 53 *0.6702
 Mutation 0 2 4 7  
PIK3CA
 Wild type 14 16 28 54 *0.06858
 Mutation 0 6 2 6  
FBXW7
 Wild type 14 19 27 56 *0.516
 Mutation 0 3 3 4  
BRAF
 Wild type 14 20 28 55 *0.8769
 Mutation 0 2 2 5  
  1. Cumulative smoking dose: pack-years (PY) = Packs/day × years of smoking
  2. Smoking status 0: non-smoker, Smoking status 1: 0 < PY < 20, Smoking status 2: 20 < PY < 40, Smoking status 3: 40 < PY
  3. Abbreviation: Ce cervical esophageal cancer, Ut upper thoracic esophageal cancer, Mt middle thoracic esophageal cancer, Lt lower thoracic esophageal cancer, Ae abdominal esophageal cancer, SCC squamous cell carcinoma, NAC neoadjuvant chemotherapy
  4. * Fisher’s exact test, ** Wilcoxon test