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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model for overall survival

From: Rapidly declining skeletal muscle mass predicts poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transcatheter intra-arterial therapies

Variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Age, years, ≥70 vs. <70 0.857 (0.539–1.362) 0.513   
Sex, men vs. women 1.354 (0.814–2.255) 0.243   
BMI, kg/m2, ≥25.0 vs. <25.0 0.731 (0.444–1.204) 0.218   
Baseline L3 SMI, low SMI vs. high SMI 1.405 (0.861–2.293) 0.174   
ΔL3 SMI, SML vs. non-SML 1.750 (1.093–2.800) 0.020 1.675 (1.031–2.721) 0.037
ALT, U/L, ≥30 vs. <30 1.046 (0.650–1.682) 0.854   
Total bilirubin, mg/dL, ≥1.5 vs. <1.5 1.690 (1.002–2.851) 0.049 1.747 (0.897–3.403) 0.101
Albumin, g/dL, ≥3.5 vs. <3.5 0.595 (0.361–0.982) 0.042 0.697 (0.386–1.259) 0.231
Platelet count, ×104/μL, ≥10.0 vs. <10.0 0.971 (0.607–1.552) 0.902   
Child-Pugh classification, A vs. B 0.638 (0.395–1.030) 0.066   
AFP, ng/mL, ≥20 vs. <20 2.618 (1.615–4.241) <  0.001 2.550 (1.440–4.515) 0.001
TNM stage, I + II vs. III + IV 0.785 (0.474–1.300) 0.347   
Maximum tumor diameter, mm, ≥30 vs. <30 1.936 (1.195–3.135) 0.007 1.925 (1.166–3.179) 0.010
Number of tumors, solitary vs. multiple 0.961 (0.572–1.614) 0.880   
Treatment sessions between CT exams, sessions, 1 vs. ≥ 2 0.696 (0.433–1.119) 0.135   
mRECIST assessment, non-PD vs. PD 0.444 (0.277–0.712) 0.001 0.653 (0.392–1.088) 0.102
BCAA supplementation, presence vs. absence 1.614 (0.898–2.900) 0.110   
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, SML skeletal muscle loss, BMI body mass index, L3 SMI skeletal muscle index at third lumber vertebral level, ΔL3 SMI rate of change of skeletal muscle mass over 6 months, SML skeletal muscle loss, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, CT computed tomography, mRECIST Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, PD progressive disease, BCAA branched-chain amino acid