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Table 3 Psychosocial and work-related factors of prostate cancer survivors at the beginning of the rehabilitation program with regard to work status at 12-months follow-up (N = 711)

From: Return to work in prostate cancer survivors – findings from a prospective study on occupational reintegration following a cancer rehabilitation program

  Not returned to work 12 months after the end of the rehabilitation program Returned to work 12 months after the end of the rehabilitation program  
N = 93 N = 618  
n % M SD n % M SD p-value
Psychosocial well-being, function and symptoms
Anxiety and Depression (HADS)
 Anxiety 93   6.2 4.3 616   5.6 3.8 .149a
 Depression 93   5.4 4.0 617   4.8 3.4 .146a
Quality of Life – functioning (EORTC QLQ-C30)b
 Global health status/ quality of life 93   48.1 22.4 618   53.1 20.6 .032 a
 Physical functioning 93   68.2 20.9 617   72.9 19.0 .031 a
 Role functioning 93   37.1 31.4 615   40.6 33.7 .350a
 Emotional functioning 93   61.0 27.8 615   64.0 24.9 .283a
 Cognitive functioning 93   77.1 26.7 616   78.6 22.8 .547a
 Social functioning 93   50.7 30.0 618   56.1 27.7 .083a
Quality of life – symptoms (EORTC QLQ-PR25)c
 Urinary symptoms 93   48.2 19.5 615   45.7 20.0 .265a
 Bowel symptoms 92   10.4 13.1 614   8.3 11.4 .141a
 Hormonal treatment-related symptoms 92   16.0 13.3 617   14.0 12.2 .143a
 Bother due to use of incontinence aid 73   47.0 35.9 452   42.1 33.5 .249a
Work-related issues and behaviors
Work-related behavior pattern (AVEM)          
 Healthy ambitious- Type G 25 26.9    156 25.2    .092d
 Unambitious- Type S 37 39.8    196 31.7   
 Excessively unambitious- Risk Type A 14 15.1    112 18.1   
 Resigned- Risk Type B 16 17.2    102 16.5   
 Unclear 1 1.1    52 8.4   
Work-related issues (SIBAR)
 Self-perceived work ability   92    615     
 Not able to work (<  3 h/day)   38 41.3   124 20.2    <.001 d
 Limited ability (3–6 h/day)   49 53.3   415 67.5   
 Full ability (>  6 h/day)   5 5.4   76 12.4   
 Sick leave in the 12 months preceding rehabilitation          
 None or up to 5 weeks 55 60.4    499 82.3    <.001 d
 6 weeks or more 36 39.6    107 17.7   
 Intention to apply for a disability pension (yes) 39 43.8    124 20.6    <.001 d
 Occupational stress (yes) 22 24.2    76 12.4    .002 d
 Self-perceived capacity to return to the former job and related working tasks
 Probably or definitely yes 55 59.1    532 86.6    <.001 d
 Uncertain 23 24.7    67 10.9   
 Probably or definitely no 15 16.1    15 2.4   
Effort-reward imbalance (ERI)
 Efforte 89   16.5 5.1 614   15.5 4.4 .094a
 Reward 85   46.4 7.6 591   48.2 6.8 .022 a
 Effort-reward imbalance (cut off ≥1) 12 14.1    48 8.1    .071d
  1. Abbreviations M mean, SD Standard deviation, p-value probability of type I error
  2. Significant p-values are marked in bold
  3. at-test, two-tailed
  4. bscale 0–100 (100 maximum level of functioning), symptom scales not included in the presented analyses
  5. cscale 0–100 (100 maximum symptom burden), functioning scales not included in the presented analyses
  6. dchi-square-test
  7. eanalyses based on the six-item version
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