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Table 4 Recurrence-free survival in patients with resectable high-grade salivary gland cancers (n = 103)

From: Treatment outcomes in metastatic and localized high-grade salivary gland cancer: high chance of cure with surgery and post-operative radiation in T1–2 N0 high-grade salivary gland cancer

Factors (Number) Univariate model Multivariate model #1 Multivariate model #2
HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
 Age (years) 1.008 0.980–1.036 0.584       
 Gender (Male/Female) (83/20) 2.070 0.808–5.303 0.130       
 Primary site
  Parotid gland (69) 1 (Ref.)         
  Non-parotid gland (34) 1.718 0.912–3.237 0.094       
 TN categories
  T3–4/T1–2 (45/58) 1.986 1.048–3.761 0.035 0.984 0.460–2.103 0.967    
  N1–3/N0 (48/55) 4.489 2.241–8.994 < 0.001 4.693 1.990–11.069 < 0.001 4.650 1.967–10.994 < 0.001
 Pathological diagnosis
  Salivary duct carcinoma (67) 1 (Ref.)         
  Squamous cell carcinoma, primary (9) 0.226 0.031–1.661 0.114       
  Adenoid cystic carcinoma, solid type (8) 1.289 0.451–3.685 0.635       
  Mucoepidermoid carcinoma, high-grade (7) 0.851 0.258–2.806 0.791       
  Adenocarcinoma, high-grade (6) 0.283 0.040–2.162 0.229       
  Others (6) 1.847 0.556–6.138 0.317       
 Treatment modalities
  Surgery (13) 1 (Ref)    1 (Ref)    1 (Ref)   
  Surgery + radiation (62) 1.294 0.450–3.719 0.632 0.917 0.303–2.778 0.879 0.912 0.301–2.758 0.870
  Surgery + radiation + chemotherapy (28) 1.068 0.339–3.359 0.911 0.421 0.125–1.425 0.164 0.421 0.125–1.424 0.164
  Surgery of primary tumor (R1/R0) (6/97) 1.126 0.347–3.660 0.843       
  Neck dissection/no neck dissection (72/31) 1.489 0.739–3.000 0.266       
 Pathological risk factors
  Perineural invasion (Y/N) (13/90) 1.111 0.434–2.846 0.827       
  Lymphovascular invasion (Y/N) (16/87) 1.132 0.440–2.915 0.797       
  Extra-parenchymal extension (Y/N) (45/58) 2.045 1.077–3.886 0.029     1.006 0.469–2.157 0.988
  Extra-capsular spread (Y/N) (26/77) 3.236 1.665–6.290 0.001 1.799 0.850–3.811 0.125 1.792 0.846–3.795 0.128
  1. T classification (particularly T3) was significantly associated with the presence of extra-parenchymal extension of primary tumors; thus, we built two separate multivariate models using independent variables
  2. Abbreviation:
  3. HR hazard ratio CI confidence interval
  4. R1 resection: Cancer cells present at the resection margin, R0 resection: Cancer cells absent at the resection margin
  5. Others (Pathology diagnosis): Atypical high-grade carcinoma, high-grade carcino-sarcoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma
  6. Y: presence, N: absence