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Table 4 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of urinary concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (ng/ml; specific gravity-corrected) and microcarcinomas and larger tumor papillary thyroid cancer in Connecticut women

From: A case-control study of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants and risk of thyroid cancer in women

  Microcarcinomas (Tumor Diameter ≤ 1 cm) Larger Tumor Size (Tumor Diameter > 1 cm)
Organophosphate Flame Retardant (ng/ml) Cases Controls ORa 95% CI p- trend Cases Controls ORa 95% CI p- trend
BCIPP
  < MDL 32 50 1    28 50 1   
  ≥ MDL - 0.45 9 25 0.52 (0.18, 1.38) 0.06 16 25 0.99 (0.38, 2.56) 0.31
  > 0.45 6 25 0.38 (0.12, 1.09) 7 25 0.51 (0.15, 1.56)
 Continuousb 47 100 0.84 (0.69, 1.03)   51 100 0.94 (0.77, 1.14)  
DPHP           
  < 0.59 17 33 1    16 33 1   
 0.59–1.28 15 33 0.87 (0.33, 2.29) 0.61 18 33 0.94 (0.33, 2.67) 0.57
  > 1.28 15 34 0.78 (0.29, 2.05) 17 34 1.32 (0.49, 3.64)
 Continuousb 47 100 0.86 (0.56, 1.26)   51 100 1.08 (0.76, 1.55)  
BDCIPP           
  < 0.37 15 33 1    14 33 1   
 0.37–0.96 15 33 0.76 (0.28, 2.03) 0.90 18 33 1.02 (0.36, 2.86) 0.49
  > 0.85 17 34 1.03 (0.41, 2.65) 19 34 1.43 (0.51, 4.08)
 Continuousb 47 100 0.98 (0.74, 1.31)   51 100 1.12 (0.84, 1.51)  
IPDPP
  < 1.60 17 33 1    13 33 1   
 1.60–3.56 12 33 0.79 (0.30, 2.08) 0.99 16 33 1.00 (0.35, 2.84) 0.52
  > 3.56 18 34 1.01 (0.39, 2.55) 22 34 1.37 (0.50, 3.83)
 Continuousb 47 100 1.06 (0.70, 1.60)   51 100 0.98 (0.62, 1.54)  
BCIPHIPP           
  < 0.12 18 33 1    20 33 1   
 0.12–0.32 18 33 1.06 (0.44, 2.57) 0.25 15 33 0.81 (031, 2.10) 0.27
  > 0.32 11 34 0.54 (0.19, 1.45) 16 34 0.57 (0.21, 1.52)
 Continuousb 47 100 0.79 (0.57, 1.06)   51 100 0.77 (0.59, 1.00)  
Summed PFR           
  < 4.10 20 34 1    14 34 1   
 4.10–7.95 12 33 0.65 (0.25, 1.66)   17 33 1.37 (0.50, 3.83) 0.55
  > 7.95 15 33 0.75 (0.29, 1.93) 0.53 20 33 1.37 (0.50, 3.79)
 Continuousb 47 100 0.77 (0.47, 1.22)   51 100 1.02 (0.66, 1.57)  
  1. bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) 1-hydroxy-2-propyl phosphate (BCIPHIPP), bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCPP), diphenyl phosphate (DPP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), isopropyl-phenyl phenyl phosphate (IP-DPP), and tert-butyl phenyl phenyl phosphate (tb-PPP), odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95%CI), PFR (organophosphate flame retardant)
  2. aAdjusted for age, BMI, education level, family history of thyroid cancer, previous benign thyroid disease, and alcohol consumption
  3. bBased on log-transformed PFR concentrations; odds ratio calculated for each 1og of 1 ng/ml
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