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Table 2 Association between investigated factors and opioid side effects reported in 9 studies included in the systematic review

From: A systematic review of the risk factors for clinical response to opioids for all-age patients with cancer-related pain and presentation of the paediatric STOP pain study

Factors Association [reference]
None Direct Inverse
 Age (advanced) Anorexia, itch, nausea [61]; constipation [40, 67]; confusion, drowsiness [40] Constipation, dry mouth, hallucination [61] Myoclonus and urinary hesitancy [61]; dry mouth, nausea [40]
 Gender (female) Constipation [67]; itch, myoclonus, nausea, urinary hesitancy [61] Anorexia, dry mouth [61]  
 Biochemical factors Constipation [67]   
 Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR; low vs normal) Fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, cognitive dysfunction [84] Loss of appetite, constipation [84]  
 Cancer diagnosis Constipation [67]   
 Comorbidity (Charlson score)   Constipation [74]  
 Terminal stage (decreasing weeks before death) Nausea, vomiting [40]   Confusion, dry mouth, drowsiness, constipation [40]
Pain related
 Neuropathic pain (vs absence)   Dry mouth, confusion [40]  
 Visceral pain (vs somatic pain)   Nausea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth [40] Confusion [40]
Drug use
 Co-use of ≥2 opioids   Constipation [74]  
 Dose (high) ADR [38]; constipation [67, 77, 78]; nausea [61, 77, 78]; dizziness, myoclonus [61]; dry mouth, emesis [78]; anorexia, somnolence, vomiting [77] Urinary hesitancy [61] Dry mouth [77]
 Length of therapy (days) Constipation [67] Constipation [74]  
 Switching   Dysuria [37]; constipation [74]