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Table 1 Association between investigated factors and opioid non-response reported in 39 studies included in the systematic review

From: A systematic review of the risk factors for clinical response to opioids for all-age patients with cancer-related pain and presentation of the paediatric STOP pain study

Factors Association [reference]
None Direct Inverse
Sociodemographic
 Age (advanced) [22, 24, 25, 30, 36, 50, 51, 61, 77] [53, 63, 83] [38, 40, 57, 58, 65, 66, 78, 80, 81]
 Gender (male) [24, 25, 36, 38, 40, 47, 51, 57, 58, 61, 65, 66, 77, 78, 86] [53, 83] [22]
 Weight/body mass index Body mass index [51, 58] Weight gain (higher or equal to 1 kg) [25]  
 Alcohol Alcoholism [28, 72] Abuse [56]  
Clinical
 Cancer diagnosis [23, 24, 36, 38, 51, 58, 62, 77, 83] Gastrointestinal, lung and ovarian [78]; mesothelioma [41]; lower gastrointestinal tract [25]; breast [53]; head and neck and lung [50]; tongue [46] Non sex-related cancers [57]
 Biochemical parameters [35]; Serum creatinine and total bilirubin [53]; sodium, calcium, albumin, creatinine [25] Alanine aminotransferase [53]; white blood cells count [25] Total proteins [53]; vitamin D levels [87]
 Cognition (poor) [51, 65, 66, 88] [48, 83, 85] [22]
 Metastasis location Liver [51]; skeletal [24] Bone [77, 78]; brain [78]; spinal [81] Bone [22]; lung [81]
 Psychological distress [29, 88]; Mood (local questionnaire sad/depressed) [77]; depression (HAD) [22] EORTC functioning [65, 66]; emotional non-well-being (FACT-G) or anxiety (MHI) [56]; anxiety (preop STAI) or Depression levels (preop BDI) [30] EORTC functioning [51]
 Sleep disturbance [77] [50, 51] [22]
Pain related
 Breakthrough cancer pain (presence vs absence) [22] [51, 59]  
 Incidental (presence vs absence) [50, 88] [65, 66]  
 Intensity Self-reported δ VAS [58] Baseline-intervals [50]; initial pain intensity [83] Initial worst pain severity [56]
 Pathophysiology (neuropathic pain) [35, 38, 43, 51, 58, 78] Presence vs absence [24, 88]; neuropathic versus nociceptive [65, 66] Presence vs absence [22]
Drug use
 Analgesics [72]; NSAIDs [50]; previous [24] Ketorolac [62]; NSAIDs [78]  
 Adjuvants [35]; Anticonvulsants [22]; gabapentin [51]; antidepressants (vs no antidepressant) [78] Steroids or non-opioids [51]; steroids [78]; traditional sedatives [81]  
 Others Oncologic treatments [24]; neuromuscular blockade [62] Antiemetics and beta blockers [25] PPIs and recent chemotherapy (14 days) [25]; Prophylactic laxative treatments [63]
  1. BDI Beck Depression Inventory, EORTC European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, FACT-G Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, HAD Hospital Anxiety and Depression, MHI Mental Health Inventory, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, NSAID Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug, PPI Proton-pump Inhibitor, STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, VAS Visual Analog Scale