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Table 1 Summary of main findings, with examples

From: Clinical decision making in cancer care: a review of current and future roles of patient age

Category Factor Example
Context Access Age influences how fast patients are referred to specialized care
Incidence Strong association between increasing age and increasing incidence rates for cancer
Research Participants in clinical trials often younger than actual disease population
Screening Strict age cut-offs for inclusion in public screening programs
Guidelines Clinical guidelines use age thresholds when recommending treatment
Patient Physiology Age-related declines in CYP enzymes responsible for hepatic drug metabolism
Tumor biology Proportion of ER and HER2 status in breast cancer varies between age groups
Comorbidity Association between increasing age and increasing number of comorbidities
Receptivity Physicians’ recommendations are more influential for older patients
Intervention Quality Older patients tend to receive substandard treatment
Prediction Risk prediction tools use age for estimations
Treatment outcome High age is often a predictor of decreased survival