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Table 2 Clinicopathologic characteristics of castration-resistant prostate cancer patients, stratified by clinical trial participation

From: Impact of clinical trial participation on survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a multi-center analysis

  Overall
(n = 299)
Clinical trial
Participants
(n = 65)
Non-participants
(n = 234)
p
Age 66.5 (61.0–71.8) 65.0 (62.0–71.0) 67.0 (61.0–72.0) 0.384
Body mass index 23.1 (20.9–24.7) 22.9 (21.3–24.7) 23.4 (21.2–25.1) 0.345
Laboratory valuesa
 PSA (ng/mL) 69.2 (15.0–182.0) 25.8 (9.6–73.6) 88.4 (18.0–247.3) 0.005
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.0 (10.7–13.0) 12.4 (11.7–13.3) 11.9 (10.4–12.9) 0.514
 Albumin (U/L) 4.0 (3.7–4.4) 4.3 (4.0–4.5) 4.0 (3.7–4.3) 0.001
 ALP (U/L) 109.0 (70.0–209.0) 88.0 (67.0–133.5) 118 (71.0–221.5) 0.070
 WBC count (× 109/L) 5.8 (4.8–7.3) 5.8 (4.7–7.3) 5.8 (4.9–7.3) 0.919
T stage     0.764
  ≤ T2 187 (62.5%) 42 (64.7%) 145 (61.9%)  
  ≥ T3 112 (37.5%) 23 (35.3%) 89 (38.1%)  
N stage     0.491
 N0 127 (42.5%) 30 (46.2%) 97 (41.5%)  
 N1 172 (57.5%) 35 (53.8%) 137 (58.5%)  
M stage     1.000
 M0 73 (24.4%) 15 (23.1%) 58 (24.8%)  
 M1 226 (75.6%) 50 (76.9%) 176 (75.2%)  
Metastatic site     
 Bone 166 (55.5%) 37 (57.0%) 129 (55.1%) 0.856
 Visceral 8 (2.7%) 8 (12.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0.215
 Lymph node 142 (47.5%) 26 (40.0%) 116 (49.6%) 0.116
Gleason score     0.267
  ≤ 7 156 (52.2%) 30 (46.2%) 126 (53.8%)  
  ≥ 8 143 (47.8%) 35 (53.8%) 108 (46.2%)  
CCI     0.780
  ≤ 1 142 (%) 32 (49.2%) 110 (47.0%)  
  ≥ 2 157 (%) 33 (50.8%) 124 (53.0%)  
ECOG PS     0.033
  ≤ 1 261 (87.3%) 62 (95.4%) 199 (85.1%)  
  ≥ 2 38 (12.7%) 3 (4.6%) 35 (14.9%)  
Primary treatmentb
 Prostatectomy 149 (49.8%) 47 (72.3%) 102 (43.6%) < 0.001
 Radiation therapy 33 (11.0%) 10 (15.4%) 23 (9.8%) 0.261
  1. Data are presented as the median (interquartile range) or number (%)
  2. aAt diagnosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer
  3. bNumber of primary treatment does not sum to 299 patients due to the existence of men who did not receive any local treatment with curative intent
  4. Abbreviations: ALP alkaline phosphatase, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, ECOG PS Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, PSA prostate-specific antigen, WBC white blood cell