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Table 3 Positive predictive values and positive likelihood ratios for upper GI cancers divided by specific and non-specific upper GI cancer alarm symptoms experienced in the general population

From: Predictive values of upper gastrointestinal cancer alarm symptoms in the general population: a nationwide cohort study

Cases of upper GI cancers, numbers (N, %), positive predictive values, PPV (%) with 95%-CI and positive likelihood ratios (LR+) Total
At least one alarm symptom N (%) 12 (66.7%)
PPV 0.1
95% CI (0.0;0.1)
LR+ 1.4
95% CI(LR+) (1.0;1.9)
At least one specific alarm symptom N (%) 6 (33.3%)
PPV 0.2
95% CI (0.1;0.5)
LR+ 4.4
95% CI(LR+) (0.7;1.7)
At least one non-specific alarm symptom N (%) 9 (50.0%)
PPV 0.1
95% CI (0.0;0.1)
LR+ 1.1
95% CI(LR+) (2.3;8.4)
Symptom experience and GP contact with at least one alarm symptom N (%) 7 (38.9%)
PPV 0.2
95% CI (0.1;0.3
LR+ 2.8
95% CI(LR) (1.6;5.0)