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Table 1 Patient characteristics and treatment (n = 79)

From: Survival and clinical outcomes of patients with melanoma brain metastasis in the era of checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies

Characteristic at the time of initial brain metastasis No. of patients (%)
Median age (range), years 63 (17–91)
Sex
 Male 53 (67.1%)
Stage prior to initial brain metastasis,
 I/II 13 (16.4%)
 III 13 (16.4%)
 IV (M1a) 6 (7.6%)
 IV (M1b) 8 (10.1%)
 IV (M1c) 25 (31.6%)
 Unknown primary melanoma/Data not available 14 (17.7%)
Intracranial site of metastasisa
 Cerebrum 72 (91.1%)
 Cerebellum 17 (21.5%)
 Pons 7 (8.9%)
 Leptomeninges 2 (2.5%)
 Unknown 1 (1.3%)
Number of brain metastasisa
 1 39 (49.4%)
 2–3 15 (19%)
 4–5 6 (7.6%)
 6–9 3 (3.8%)
  ≥ 10 12 (15.2%)
 Unknown 4 (5.0%)
Size of the largest brain metastasisa
  ≤ 10 mm 25 (31.7%)
  > 10–30 mm 32 (40.5%)
  > 30–50 mm 15 (19.0%)
  > 50 mm 3 (3.8%)
 Unknown 4 (5.0%)
Symptomatic from brain metastasis
 Yes 36 (45.6%)
Sites of extracranial metastatic organsa
 Lung 22 (27.9%)
 LN/Soft tissue 21 (26.6%)
 Skin/SQ 15 (19.0%)
 Bone 12 (15.2%)
 Liver 8 (10.1%)
 Adrenal gland 3 (3.8%)
V600 BRAF mutation
 Mutated 29 (36.7%)
 Wild type 38 (48.1%)
 Unknown 12(15.2%)
Number of systemic therapy given after a diagnosis of brain metastasis
 1 28 (35.4%)
 2 22 (27.8%)
 3+ 20 (25.3%)
 Info not available 9 (11.4%)
Type of systemic therapy given after a diagnosis of brain metastasis
 Ipilimumab 39 (49.4%)
 Anti PD-1 antibody 28 (35.4%)
  Concurrent Nivolumab/Ipilimumab 8 (10.1%)
 BRAF inhibitor (+/− MEK inhibitor) only 24 (30.4%)
 Cytotoxic chemotherapy 35 (44.3%)
 Interleukin-2-based biochemotherapy 10 (12.7%)
Sequence of novel drug therapy after a diagnosis of brain metastasisb
 Checkpoint inhibitor followed by BRAF inhibitor (+/− MEK inhibitor) 11 (13.9%)b
 BRAF inhibitor (+/− MEK inhibitor) followed by checkpoint inhibitor 3 (3.8%)b
  1. aat the time of initial brain metastasis diagnosis
  2. bA total of 14 patients were treated with both checkpoint inhibitor and BRAF inhibitor (+/− MEK inhibitor) after a diagnosis of brain metastasis