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Table 1 Baseline characteristic of studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

From: Diabetes mellitus and the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in women compared with men: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

Study Country Study design Sample size Mean age or age range Men/women DM types Percentage of smoker (%) Reported outcomes Effect estimate Follow-up duration (years) Maximum adjustment
Verona Diabetes Study 2003 [38] Italy Prospective 7148 66.6 3366/3782 II 20.9 EC death, GC death, CRC death, HCC death, PC death SMR 10.0 Age, treatment, smoking, BMI
Veneto Region 2014 [26] Italy Prospective 167,621 30.0–89.0 91,521/76,100 II NA EC death, GC death, CRC death, HCC death, PC death SMR 3.0 Age, specific regional
Uppsala Health Care Region 1991 [22] Sweden Prospective 51,008 > 20.0 27,862/23,146 Both NA EC, GC, CC, RC, HCC, PC RR 19.0 Age, follow-up duration
Takayama Study cohort 2013 [39] Japan Prospective 28,565 55.2 14,173/16,547 Both 32.7 EC, GC, CC, RC, HCC, PC HR 13.2 Age at baseline, smoking, BMI, PA, education, history of hypertension, stroke, IHD, TEI, and intake of fat, ethanol, and coffee
The Singapore
Chinese Health Study 2006/2013 [40, 41]
Singapore Prospective 61,320 56.4 27,328/33,992 Both 30.6 CRC, HCC HR 10.0 Age, year of recruitment, gender, dialect group, education, smoking, alcohol, BMI, and consumption of coffee and tea
SMHS and SWHS 2013/2015 [42, 43] China Prospective 133,288 53.8 61,491/74,942 II 33.0 GC, HCC HR 5.5/11.2 Age, birth cohort, education, income, BMI, occupation, smoking, alcohol, family history of cancer, TEI, fruit intake, vegetable intake, total PA, history of CH or CLD, HRT, and menopausal status
Ragozzino 1982 [44] US Prospective 1135 NA NA Both NA GC, CRC, PC RR 8.6 Age
Limburg 2006 [45] US Retrospective 1975 61.0 997/978 II 57.0 CRC SIR 16.9 Age and calendar period
PHARMO Database 2017 [46] Netherlands Prospective 68,076 63.9 34,686/33,390 II NA EC, GC, CC, RC, HCC, PC HR 13.0 Age, use of statins, PPI, anti-hypertensives 90 days prior to start of each time-interval
Gini 2016 [47] Italy Retrospective 32,247 65.0 17,827/14,420 II NA CRC, HCC, PC SIR 3.7 Age and year at cancer diagnosis
NIH-AARP Diet and Health
Study 2011 [48]
US Prospective 469,448 62.0 280,883/188,565 Both 14.0 EC, GC HR 8.0 Age, calories, alcohol, smoking, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, ethnicity, education, and PA
Korean Cancer Prevention Study 2005 [49] Korea Prospective 1,298,385 46.9 829,770/468,615 II 38.9 GC death, CRC death, HCC death, PC death HR 10.0 Age, age squared, smoking, and alcohol
NHANESI 1995 [50] US Prospective 14,407 49.1 NA Both 30.2 CRC OR 17.0 Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, income, and recreational PA
The Cardiovascular Health Study 1999 [51] US Prospective 5849 72.8 2478/3371 Both 12.0 CRC RR 6.4 Age and PA
Fujino 2001 [52] Japan Prospective 4902 55.2 2444/2458 Both 30.3 HCC RR 10.3 Age, smoking, alcohol, history of hepatitis, and cirrhosis
Clalit Health Care Services 2013 [53] Israel Retrospective 87,934 51.5 43,632/44,302 II 5.8 CRC, PC SIR 10.0 Age
Clalit Health Services 2016 [54] Israel Prospective 2,186,196 46.6 1,034,074/1,152,122 II 31.6 GC, CRC, HCC, PC HR 10.1 Age, socioeconomic status, and ethnic group
Danish Central Hospital Discharge Register 1997 [25] Denmark Prospective 109,581 66.5 54,571/55,010 Both NA EC, GC, CC, RC, HCC, PC SIR 5.7 Age, follow-up duration
Cancer Prevention Study 1998 [55] US Prospective 863,699 52.3 352,849/510,850 Both 40.6 CRC RR 13.0 Age, race, educational level, BMI, smoking, alcohol, dietary intake, aspirin use, PA, and family history of CRC
D2C cohort 2011 [56] Germany Prospective 26,742 64.0 12,650/14,092 II 17.2 CRC, HCC, PC SIR 3.7 BMI, diabetes duration, and medication at study entry
Diabetes Registry Tyrol 2014 [57] Austria Prospective 7627 59.0 4126/3501 Both NA GC, CRC, HCC, PC SIR 6.0 Age
Koskinen 1998 [58] Finland Prospective 114,058 30.0–74.0 NA Both NA GC, CC SMR 5.0 Age
EPIC-Norfolk Study 2004 [59] UK Prospective 9605 59.0 4445/5160 Both 11.7 CRC RR 6.0 Age, BMI, and smoking
Xu 2015 [60] China Retrospective 36,379 59.0 16,166/20,213 II NA GC, CC, RC, HCC, PC SIR 3.7 Age
Newfoundland and Labrador 2013 [61] Canada Retrospective 122,228 > 30.0 61,156/61,072 Both NA CRC, CC, RC HR 10.5 Age, and severity of co-morbid illness
Netherlands Cohort Study 2016 [62] Netherlands Prospective 120,852 55.0–69.0 58,279/62,573 II NA CRC, CC, RC HR 17.3 Age, BMI, pants/skirt size, family history of CRC, smoking, alcohol, dietary habits and nonoccupational PA
Maccabi Healthcare Services 2010 [63] Israel Retrospective 100,595 61.6 52,913/47,682 Both 9.6 EC, GC, CC, RC, HCC, PC HR 8.0 Age, region, SES level, use of healthcare services a year prior to index date, BMI, and history of CVD
National Health Screening Service 2001 [21] Norway Prospective 75,219 49.2 36,975/38,244 Both NA CRC, CC RR 12.0 Age
Nationwide Cohort Study in Sweden 1995 [64] Sweden Retrospective 134,096 NA 63,987/70,109 Both NA PC SIR 6.7 Age entered cohort, year entered cohort, initial hospitalization, hospital discharges, diabetic complications, follow-up
The Multiethnic Cohort 2010 [65] US Prospective 199,142 59.9 89,478/109,664 Both NA CRC RR 13.0 Race, age at baseline questionnaire, BMI, smoking, NSAIDs use, education, alcohol, saturated fat intake, unsaturated fat intake, dietary fibre intake, PA, family history of CRC.
Wang 2015 [23] China Prospective 327,268 59.4 163,819/163,449 II NA EC, GC, CC, RC, HCC, PC SIR 7.0 Age and urbanization level of area registered in the system
Zhang 2012 [66, 67] China Retrospective 7938 61.1 3792/4146 II NA EC, GC, CRC, CC, RC, HCC, PC SIR 2.6 Age, surveillance region and the observed person-years in type 2 diabetes
Japan Public Health Center- Based Prospective Study 2006 [68, 69] Japan Prospective 97,771 51.6 46,548/51,223 Both 40.8 GC, CC, RC, HCC, PC HR 10.7 Age at baseline, study area, history of cerebrovascular disease, history of IHD, smoking, ethanol intake, BMI, leisure-time PA, green vegetable intake, and coffee intake
Cancer Prevention Study II 2004 [19, 20] US Prospective 1,056,243 56.7 467,922/588,321 Both 20.3 EC death, GC death, CC death, RC death, HCC death, PC death RR 14.8 Age, race, years of education, BMI, smoking, alcohol, total red meat consumption, consumption of citrus fruits and juices, consumption of vegetables, PA
Japan Collaborative Cohort Study 2006 [70, 71] Japan Prospective 56,881 57.1 23,378/33,503 Both 23.5 GC, CRC death, CC, RC, HCC, PC RR 8.0 Age, BMI, family history of cancer, smoking, drinking habit, sports, walking, and education
National Health Insurance Program 2014 [24] China Retrospective 9,884,228 >  20.0 5,419,238/4,464,990 II NA EC, GC, CRC, HCC, PC SIR 10.0 Insurance premium, urbanization degree of area registered for National Health Insurance program, and age
Zhou 2010 [72] 7 countries in Europe Prospective 44,655 53.3 26,460/18,195 Both 34.1 HCC death, PC death HR 5.9–36.8 Study cohort, age, BMI, SBP, cholesterol and smoking
EPOCH-JAPAN 2017 [73] Japan Prospective 46,387 57.7 20,426/25,961 Both 27.5 PC death HR 14.6 Age, BMI, smoking, and alcohol
  1. BMI: body mass index; CC: colon cancer; CH: chronic hepatitis; CLD: chronic liver disease; CRC: colorectal cancer; CVD: cardiovascular disease; DM: diabetes mellitus; EC: esophagus cancer; GC: gastric cancer; HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma; HR: hazard ratio; HRT: hormone replacement therapy; IHD: ischemic heart disease; OR: odds ratios; PA: physical activity; PC: pancreatic cancer; PPI: proton pump inhibitors; RC: rectal cancer; RR: relative risk; SBP: systolic blood pressure; SIR: standardized incidence ratio; SMHS: Shanghai Men’s Health Study; SMR: standardized mortality ratio; SWHS: Shanghai Women’s Health Study; TEI: total energy intake; UK: United Kingdom; US: Unite States