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Table 4 Associations between recognition of unexplained bleeding as cancer symptom, negative beliefs about cancer and long anticipated patient interval for rectal bleeding (nadjusted = 19,695)

From: Negative cancer beliefs, recognition of cancer symptoms and anticipated time to help-seeking: an international cancer benchmarking partnership (ICBP) study

  Unadjusted Adjusted*
Outcome: long anticipated patient interval for rectal bleeding (>  1 week) Outcome: long anticipated patient interval for rectal bleeding (>  1 week)
Proportion with long interval (%) OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Recognition of unexplained bleeding as cancer symptom
 Yes 13.3 Ref.    Ref.   
 No 19.7 1.59 1.41–1.79 < 0.001 1.90 1.58–2.30 < 0.001
Number of negative beliefs about cancer
 0 13.0 Ref.    Ref.   
 1 13.8 1.07 0.98–1.18 0.147 1.11 1.00–1.22 0.051
 2 14.4 1.13 1.01–1.27 0.034 1.21 1.07–1.37 0.002
 3 15.8 1.26 1.06–1.48 0.007 1.41 1.18–1.69 < 0.001
  ≥ 4 20.3 1.71 1.34–2.18 < 0.001 1.97 1.51–2.57 < 0.001
Age group
 50–59 years 16.6 Ref.    Ref.   
 60–69 years 14.0 0.82 0.75–0.90 < 0.001 0.82 0.75–0.90 < 0.001
 70–79 years 11.4 0.65 0.58–0.73 < 0.001 0.67 0.59–0.76 < 0.001
  ≥ 80 years 8.5 0.46 0.39–0.56 < 0.001 0.51 0.41–0.62 < 0.001
Sex
 Female 13.7 Ref.    Ref.   
 Male 14.4 1.06 0.98–1.15 0.152 1.03 0.95–1.12 0.495
Marital status
 Cohabiting 14.3 Ref.    Ref.   
 Single 13.5 0.93 0.86–1.01 0.103 1.08 0.99–1.18 0.086
Education
 No university degree 12.9 Ref.    Ref.   
 University degree 16.4 1.33 1.22–1.44 < 0.001 1.29 1.18–1.41 < 0.001
Smoking status
 Not current smoker 14.0 Ref.    Ref.   
 Current smoker 13.9 1.00 0.90–1.12 0.990 0.91 0.81–1.02 0.111
Experience of cancer (self and/or family/friend)
 Yes 14.2 Ref.    Ref.   
 No 12.6 0.87 0.78–0.97 0.010 0.85 0.76–0.95 0.006
Country
 UK 13.6 Ref.    Ref.   
 Australia 8.6 0.59 0.52–0.68 < 0.001 0.60 0.52–0.68 < 0.001
 Canada 15.1 1.13 1.01–1.27 0.033 1.04 0.93–1.17 0.480
 Denmark 14.6 1.08 0.94–1.25 0.270 1.00 0.86–1.16 0.990
 Norway 19.4 1.52 1.34–1.74 < 0.001 1.46 1.27–1.68 < 0.001
 Sweden 17.1 1.31 1.14–1.50 < 0.001 1.22 1.06–1.41 0.005
Test of moderation
Negative beliefs x Non-recognition of unexplained bleeding      0.84 0.75–0.95 0.005
Likelihood-ratio test
 LR chi2        7.97
 P-value        0.005
  1. *All independent variables were included in the same model