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Table 3 Associations between recognition of persistent cough or hoarseness as cancer symptom, negative beliefs about cancer and long anticipated patient interval for persistent cough (nadjusted = 19,277)

From: Negative cancer beliefs, recognition of cancer symptoms and anticipated time to help-seeking: an international cancer benchmarking partnership (ICBP) study

  Unadjusted Adjusted*
Outcome: long anticipated patient interval for cough (>  1 month) Outcome: long anticipated patient interval for cough (>  1 month)
Proportion with long interval (%) OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Recognition of persistent cough or hoarseness as cancer symptom
 Yes 18.5 Ref.    Ref.   
 No 26.7 1.60 1.49–1.73 < 0.001 1.66 1.47–1.87 < 0.001
Number of negative beliefs about cancer
 0 19.8 Ref.    Ref.   
 1 19.3 0.97 0.89–1.05 0.453 0.97 0.89–1.06 0.522
 2 20.7 1.05 0.95–1.16 0.312 1.06 0.95–1.19 0.305
 3 24.5 1.31 1.14–1.51 < 0.001 1.33 1.13–1.57 0.001
  ≥ 4 36.3 2.31 1.87–2.84 < 0.001 2.18 1.71–2.78 < 0.001
Age group
 50–59 years 23.1 Ref.    Ref.   
 60–69 years 21.3 0.90 0.84–0.98 0.012 0.93 0.86–1.01 0.087
 70–79 years 17.0 0.68 0.62–0.76 < 0.001 0.75 0.67–0.83 < 0.001
  ≥ 80 years 13.1 0.50 0.43–0.59 < 0.001 0.57 0.48–0.67 < 0.001
Sex
 Female 20.5 Ref.    Ref.   
 Male 20.4 0.99 0.93–1.07 0.865 0.93 0.86–1.00 0.042
Marital status
 Cohabiting 21.1 Ref.    Ref.   
 Single 19.3 0.89 0.83–0.96 0.002 0.93 0.86–1.00 0.057
Education
 No university degree 19.6 Ref.    Ref.   
 University degree 22.3 1.18 1.09–1.27 < 0.001 1.24 1.15–1.34 < 0.001
Smoking status
 Not current smoker 19.4 Ref.    Ref.   
 Current smoker 26.1 1.47 1.34–1.60 < 0.001 1.38 1.26–1.52 < 0.001
Experience of cancer (self and/or family/friend)
 Yes 20.7 Ref.    Ref.   
 No 19.0 0.90 0.82–0.98 0.020 0.85 0.77–0.93 0.001
Country
 UK 22.5 Ref.    Ref.   
 Australia 16.9 0.70 0.63–0.77 < 0.001 0.70 0.63–0.78 < 0.001
 Canada 18.8 0.79 0.72–0.88 < 0.001 0.74 0.67–0.83 < 0.001
 Denmark 21.3 0.93 0.82–1.05 0.229 0.88 0.78–1.00 0.053
 Norway 24.9 1.14 1.01–1.28 0.031 1.10 0.97–1.24 0.137
 Sweden 18.2 0.77 0.67–0.87 < 0.001 0.72 0.64–0.83 < 0.001
Test of moderation
 Negative beliefs x Non-recognition of persistent cough or hoarseness      0.99 0.92–1.07 0.831
Likelihood-ratio test
 LR chi2        0.05
 P-value        0.831
  1. *All independent variables were included in the same model