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Table 2 Demographics, lifestyle factors and healthcare use among CRC cases and non-cases in 2002 and 2014

From: Trends in the contemporary incidence of colorectal cancer and patient characteristics in the United Kingdom: a population-based cohort study using The Health Improvement Network

  CRC cases    Non-cases   
2002 (N = 921) 2014 (N = 1330) % change p value 2002 (N = 1,125,723) 2014 (N = 1,756,868) % change p value
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Sex     0.711     < 0.001
 Male 501 (54.4) 734 (55.2) + 0.8   523,503 (46.5) 866,071 (49.3) + 2.8  
 Female 420 (45.6) 596 (44.8) −0.8   602,220 (53.5) 890,797 (50.7) −2.8  
Age at start datea (years)     0.001     < 0.001
 40–49 32 (3.5) 68 (5.1) + 1.6   330,063 (29.3) 577,167 (32.9) + 3.6  
 50–59 115 (12.5) 215 (16.2) + 3.7   305,523 (27.1) 464,427 (26.4) −0.7  
 60–69 244 (26.5) 334 (25.1) −1.4   234,955 (20.9) 374,036 (21.3) + 0.4  
 70–79 355 (38.5) 421 (31.7) −6.8   174,098 (15.5) 229,621 (13.1) −2.4  
 80–89 175 (19.0) 292 (22.0) + 3.0   81,084 (7.2) 111,617 (6.4) −0.8  
Smoking     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Non-smoker 393 (42.7) 575 (43.2) + 0.5   511,656 (45.5) 841,369 (47.9) + 2.4  
 Current 145 (15.7) 168 (12.6) −3.1   229,660 (20.4) 314,311 (17.9) −2.5  
 Former 230 (25.0) 580 (43.6) + 18.6   190,297 (16.9) 577,415 (32.9) + 16  
 Unknown 153 (16.6) 7 (0.5) −16.1   194,110 (17.2) 23,773 (1.4) −15.8  
BMI (kg/m2)     < 0.001     < 0.001
 15–19 23 (2.5) 48 (3.6) + 1.1   39,966 (3.6) 65,177 (3.7) + 0.1  
 20–24 253 (27.5) 316 (23.8) −3.7   316,584 (28.1) 482,255 (27.4) −0.7  
 25–29 298 (32.4) 517 (38.9) + 6.5   323,628 (28.7) 594,699 (33.8) + 5.1  
  ≥ 30 116 (12.6) 360 (27.1) + 14.5   169,036 (15.0) 441,310 (25.1) + 10.1  
 Unknown 231 (25.1) 89 (6.7) −18.4   276,509 (24.6) 173,427 (9.9) −14.7  
Polypharmacy     < 0.001     < 0.001
 0–1 medications 517 (56.1) 612 (46.0) −10.1   792,376 (70.4) 1,151,402 (65.5) −4.9  
 2–4 medications 273 (29.6) 357 (26.8) −2.8   231,408 (20.6) 345,485 (19.7) −0.9  
  ≥ 5 medications 131 (14.2) 361 (27.1) + 12.9   101,939 (9.1) 259,981 (14.8) + 5.7  
Alcohol (u/w)     < 0.001     < 0.001
 None 113 (12.3) 230 (17.3) + 5.0   150,487 (13.4) 268,029 (15.3) + 1.9  
 1–9 392 (42.6) 621 (46.7) +4.1   471,097 (41.8) 785,666 (44.7) + 2.9  
 10–20 116 (12.6) 219 (16.5) + 3.9   142,656 (12.7) 297,466 (16.9) + 4.2  
 21–41 45 (4.9) 72 (5.4) + 0.5   48,314 (4.3) 94,073 (5.4) + 1.1  
  ≥ 42 15 (1.6) 31 (2.3) + 0.7   16,227 (1.4) 40,976 (2.3) + 0.9  
 Unknown 240 (26.1) 157 (11.8) −14.3   296,942 (26.4) 270,658 (15.4) −11  
PCP visitsb     < 0.001     < 0.001
 0–4 374 (40.6) 249 (18.7) −21.9   622,029 (55.3) 582,007 (33.1) −22.2  
 5–9 252 (27.4) 319 (24.0) −3.4   277,673 (24.7) 435,570 (24.8) + 0.1  
 10–14 135 (14.7) 242 (18.2) + 3.5   121,781 (10.8) 291,525 (16.6) + 5.8  
 15–19 79 (8.6) 171 (12.9) +4.3   54,652 (4.9) 177,759 (10.1) + 5.2  
  ≥ 20 81 (8.8) 349 (26.2) + 17.4   49,588 (4.4) 270,007 (15.4) + 11  
Referralsb     < 0.001     < 0.001
 0–1 636 (69.1) 531 (39.9) −29.2   920,723 (81.8) 929,757 (52.9) −28.9  
 2–4 218 (23.7) 380 (28.6) +4.9   155,781 (13.8) 464,696 (26.5) + 12.7  
 5–9 58 (6.3) 279 (21.0) + 14.7   41,329 (3.7) 261,011 (14.9) + 11.2  
  ≥ 10 9 (1.0) 140 (10.5) + 9.5   7890 (0.7) 101,404 (5.8) + 5.1  
Hospitalizationsb     < 0.001     < 0.001
 None 829 (90.0) 1109 (83.4) −6.6   1,063,618 (94.5) 1,557,111 (88.6) −5.9  
 1 57 (6.2) 133 (10.0) + 3.8   43,745 (3.9) 134,083 (7.6) + 3.7  
 2 23 (2.5) 49 (3.7) + 1.2   11,974 (1.1) 40,510 (2.3) + 1.2  
  ≥ 3 12 (1.3) 39 (2.9) + 1.6   6386 (0.6) 25,164 (1.4) + 0.8  
Townsend score     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Quintile 1 (least deprived) 225 (24.4) 340 (25.6) + 1.2   304,177 (27.0) 466,028 (26.5) −0.5  
 Quintile 2 183 (19.9) 329 (24.7) +4.8   253,931 (22.6) 394,091 (22.4) −0.2  
 Quintile 3 180 (19.5) 297 (22.3) + 2.8   219,425 (19.5) 355,598 (20.2) + 0.7  
 Quintile 4 183 (19.9) 185 (13.9) −6.0   178,640 (15.9) 289,718 (16.5) + 0.6  
 Quintile 5 (most deprived) 98 (10.6) 140 (10.5) −0.1   117,993 (10.5) 191,274 (10.9) + 0.4  
 Unknown 52 (5.6) 39 (2.9) −2.7 0.001 51,557 (4.6) 60,159 (3.4) −1.2 < 0.001
Setting         
 Urban 562 (61.0) 748 (56.2) −4.8   720,972 (64.0) 1,086,412(61.8) −2.2  
 Town 120 (13.0) 148(11.1) −1.9   129,017 (11.5) 178,340 (10.2) −1.3  
 Rural 58 (6.3) 73 (5.5) −0.8   76,435 (6.8) 98,160 (5.6) −1.2  
 Unknown 181 (19.7) 361 (27.1) + 7.4   199,299 (17.7) 393,956 (22.4) +4.7  
  1. aEntry into the study year (start date)
  2. bIn the year before the start date
  3. BMI body mass index, CRC colorectal cancer, PCP primary care practitioner, u/w units per week