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Table 7 Characteristics of included studies- breast cancer

From: Associations between aspirin use and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Sex Study period Source of subjects No of case No of control/cohort size Cancer site Exposure assessment Exposure Definition Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Case-control studies
 Iqbal U [47], 2017, China F 2001–2011 The Taiwan NHI database 65,491 435,364 Breast cancer Prescription Patients had aspirin prescribed at least for 2 months during the 3-year period before the initial cancer diagnosis 1,2,13,14, 15,16,17 7
 Dierssen-Sotos T [132], 2016, Spain F 2008–2013 The MCC study 1736 1909 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use of aspirin- not further defined 1,3,4,5,10,30,36,40,50,51 8
 Cui Y [133], 2014, US F 2001–2011 Nashville Breast Health Study 2154 1831 Breast cancer Telephone interview Use aspirin three or more times a week for a minimum duration of 1 year(regular) 1,3,4,5,6,11,18,25,40,50,51,52,53 7
 Brasky TM [134], 2010, US F 1996–2001 WEB Study 1057 2094 Breast cancer Self-reported Use 0 days/month (non-users) 1,4,5,11,25,29,36,37,38,53, 6
 Cronin-Fenton DP [135], 2010, Denmark F 1991–2006 Population from North Jutland and Aarhus counties, Denmark 8195 81,950 Breast cancer Danish healthcare databases Use at least 2 prescriptions within 2 years of diagnosis(recent use) 25,31,39 8
 Slattery ML [136], 2007, US F 1999–2004 Population from the southwestern United States (4-Corner’s Breast Cancer Study) 2325 2525 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least thrice weekly for at least 1 month(regular) 1,10,18,38,54,55,56 7
 Harris RE [137], 2006, US F 2003–2004 CHRI 277 493 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least two times per week for 2 years or more 1,3,5,6,10,38,51 7
 Swede H [138], 2005, US F 1982–1998 The Roswell Park Cancer Institute 1478 3383 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin at least once a week for at least 1 year(regular) 5,10,36,40,53 6
 Zhang YQ [139], 2005, US F 1976–2002 The Case-Control Surveillance Study Revisited 2406 1554 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least four times per week for 3 or more continuous months(regular) 1,4,5,6,10,11, 36,37,38,40,41,53,54,61,62,63,64 5
 Terry MB [140], 2004, US F 1996–1997 The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project 1442 1420 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least once a week for 6 months or longer(ever use) 1,10,29,31 6
 Moorman PG [141], 2003, US F 1996–2000 Phase II of the Carolina Breast Cancer and Carcinoma In Situ Study 500 2631 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least 8 days a month for three or more months(regular) 1 6
 Cotterchio M [142], 2001, Canada F 1996–1998 Population in Canada 2696 2600 Breast cancer Questionnaire Daily use for≥ 2 months(any use) 1,39,53 6
 Neugut AI [80], 1998, US F 1989–1992 Columbia-Prebyterian Medical Center 252 176 Breast cancer Medical record Use aspirin-not further defined 1,4,5 6
Cohort studies
 Cao Y [8], 2016, US F 1980–2010
1986–2012
NHS and HPFS 7424 135,965 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least 2 times per week(regular) 3,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,28 9
 Kim S [143], 2015, US F 2003–2013 Sister Study 2118 50,884 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least once a week(current user) 4,5,10,11,40,51,53, 67 8
 Hollestein LM [91], 2014, Netherlandsa F 1998–2010 PHARMO and the Eindhoven Cancer Registry 585 55,597 Breast cancer Prescription database Low dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg daily)- not further defined 1,2,26,27 8
 Brasky TM [92], 2014, US F 1998–2010 WHI 5401 142,330 Breast cancer Self-administered questionnaires Use at both baseline and year 3 visits (consistent) 1,3,4,5, 6,7,10,11,18,19,22,24,25,29,30,31,,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,4142,43,44,45,46,47 9
 Bardia A [144], 2011, US F 1986–2005 The IWHS 1581 26,580 Breast cancer Questionnaire Ever use aspirin- not further defined 1,3,4,5,6,10, 18,25,36,37,38,39,40,68,69 8
 Bosco JL [145], 2011, US F 1995–2007 BWHS 1275 59,000 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin ≥ 3 days per week (regular) 1,3,4,10,18,25,29,70 9
 Eliassen AH [146], 2009, US F 1989–2003 NHS II 1229 112,292 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin ≥2 times per week(regular) 5,6,7,10,36,38,40,53, 68,71 9
 Friisa S [147], 2008, Denmark F 1993–2003 The prospective Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study 396 28,695 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use more than one pill per month 1,4,25,38,50,53 7
 Gierach GL [148], 2008, US F 1995–2003 AARP 4451 126,124 Breast cancer Questionnaire Ever use aspirin- not further defined 1,5,6,11,25,29,40,49, 72 7
 Ready A [149], 2008, US F 2000–2004 VITAL cohort 479 35,323 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least once a week for a year during the last 10 years(any use) 1,5,6,10,11,19,28,29,36,37,40,72, 73,74 7
 Siemes C [96], 2008, Netherland F 1992–2004 The Rotterdam Study 175 7621 Breast cancer Questionnaire and prescriptions. The absence of a prescription for any non-aspirin or aspirin NSAID(no use) 1,3,10,25,36,37,50, 75 8
 Jacobs EJ [98], 2007, US F 1992–2003 Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort 3121 76,303 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least 30 “times” per month(daily use of adult-strength) 1,3,4,10,11,18,20,25, 28,29,45,48,49 8
 Gill JK [150], 2007, US F 1993–2002 Multiethnic Cohort 1457 98,920 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least two times per week for 1 month or longer 1,4,5,6,10,11, 25,28,36,37,40,50,51,76 7
 Gallicchio L [151], 2007, US F 1989–2006 CLUE II (“Give us a Clue to Cancer and Heart Disease”) 418 15,651 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin in the last 48 h(current user) 1 7
 Marshall SF [152], 2005, US F 1995–2001 The California Teachers Study 2391 114,640 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use at least once a Week(regular) 1,3,5,6,10,11,18, 25,28,51,53,59,77 9
 Rahme E [153], 2005, Canadaa F 1998–2202 RAMQ 664 23,573 Breast cancer Prescription database Ever use aspirin during the year prior to the index date 1,25,28,53,57,58,60 7
 Rodríguez LA [154], 2004, UKa F 1995–2001 GPRD 3708 23,708 Breast cancer Prescription database No recorded use at any time before the index date(nonuser) 1,3,6,10,25,29,53, 62,65,66 8
 Harris RE [155], 1999, US F 1991–1996 Population from The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center in Columbus, Ohio 316 32,505 Breast cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin ≥1 pill per week 1 5
 Schreinemachers DM [63], 1994, US F 1971–1987 The National Health and Examination Survey Ι 147 12,668 Breast cancer Self reported Use aspirin during the 30-day period before the interview 1,2 6
 Paganini-Hill A [103], 1989, US F 1981–1988 Population from Leisure World, Laguna Hills, US 214 13,870 Breast cancer Questionnaire Aspirin use: none,<daily, daily 2 4
  1. 1 = age, 2 = sex, 3 = smoking, 4 = education level, 5 = family history, 6 = alcohol intake, 7 = height, 8 = Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010, 9 = PSA test in past 2 y, 10 = BMI, 11 = race, 12 = folate, 13 = Charlson comorbidity index, 14 = statin, 15 = metformin, 16 = ACE inhibitors, 17 = Angiotensin II receptor blockers, 18 = physical activity, 19 = fruit, vegetable and/or vitamin intake, 20 = history of colonoscopy, 21 = total energy intake, 22 = ever use of calcium supplements in the past 5 years, 23 = former health checkup, 24 = red meat, 25 = hormone replacement therapy, 26 = unique number of dispensing, 27 = unique number of hospitalizations in the year prior to start of follow up, 28 = mammogram in past 2 y, 29 = other NSAIDs, 30 = area (county/region), 31 = migraine, 32 = Nitro-vasodilator use, 33 = observational study enrollment, 34 = diet modification trial enrollment, 35 = screening for cancer, 36 = age at menarche, 37 = age at menopause, 38 = gravidity, 39 = history of arthritis, 40 = age at first birth, 41 = duration of estrogen therapy, 42 = duration of combined postmenopausal hormone therapy, 43 = hysterectomy status, 44 = use of antihypertensive medication, 45 = history of coronary heart disease, 46 = use of cholesterol-lowering medication, 47 = history of ulcer, 48 = diabetes, 49 = hypertension, 50 = number of deliveries, 51 = menopausal status, 52 = household income, 53 = personal history of benign breast disease, 54 = study center, 55 = referent year, 56 = percentage Native American ancestry, 57 = breast procedure in the prior 3 years, 58 = other breast disease in the prior 3 years, 59 = neighborhood socioeconomic status, 60 = visit to a gynecologist in the prior year, 61 = practice of breast selfexamination, 62 = year of interview, 63 = number of physician visits 2 years before hospitalization, 64 = duration of oral contraceptive use, 65 = paracetamol, 66 = steroid, 67 = time since the last mammogram and duration and frequency of use, 68 = use of oral contraceptives, 69 = relative weight at age 12, 70 = questionnaire cycle, 71 = weight change since age 18 years, 72 = number of breast biopsies, 73 = history of surgical menopause, 74 = years of combined estrogen and progesterone hormone therapy, 75 = C-reactive protein level, 76 = all pain medication use, 77 = parity status before age 30
  2. AARP AARP diet and health study, BWHS Black Women’s Health Study, CHRI Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, GPRD General Practitioners Research Database, HPFS Health Professionals follow-up study, IWHS Iowa Women’s Health Study, MCC the Spanish Multi-Case-control study, NHS nurses’ health study, RAMQ Re′gie de l’Assurance Maladie du Que’bec, VITAL the vitamins and lifestyle, WEB Western New York exposures and breast cancer study, WHI women’s health initiative
  3. aStudy deemed to be prone to immortal time bias