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Table 6 Characteristics of included studies- lung cancer

From: Associations between aspirin use and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Sex Study period Source of subjects No of case No of control/cohort size Cancer site Exposure assessment Exposure Definition Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Case-control studies
 Iqbal U [47], 2017, China M/F 2001–2011 The Taiwan NHI database 68,409 273,636 Lung cancer Prescription Patients had aspirin prescribed at least for 2 months during the 3-year period before the initial cancer diagnosis 1,2,13,14,15,16,17 7
 Lim WY [119], 2012, Singapore F 2005–2008 Population from Chinese 252 556 Lung cancer Questionnaire Use twice a week or more, for a month or more(regular) 1, 3,4,5,19,34 7
 McCormack VA [120], 2011, US M/F AHFTS 977 683 Lung cancer Interview 1,3,5,11 7
 McCormack VA [120], 2011, US M/F Population from Boston 768 123 Lung cancer 1,3,5,11 7
 McCormack VA [120], 2011, US M/F Population from Florida 467 889 Lung cancer 1,3,5,11 7
 McCormack VA [120], 2011, US M/F Population from Hawaii 629 588 Lung cancer 1,3,5,11 7
 McCormack VA [120], 2011, US M/F MSKCC 102 101 Lung cancer 1,3,5,11 7
 McCormack VA [120], 2011, US M/F NELCS 276 251 Lung cancer 1,3,5,11 7
 McCormack VA [120], 201, Israel M/F NICCC 280 270 Lung cancer 1,3,5,11 7
 Kelly JP [121], 2008, US M/F 1976–2007 Patients in Boston Baltimore New York and Philadelphia 1884 6251 Lung cancer In-person interview Use at least 4 days per week for at least three continuous months(regular) 1,2,3,4,6,29, 30,36 6
 Van Dyke AL [122], 2008, US F 2001–2005 Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System, a participant in the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance 580 541 Lung Cancer Questionnaire Had taken any aspirin 1,3,4,5,10,11, 3135,37 7
 Harris RE [123], 2007, US M/F 2002–2004 The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 375 654 Lung Cancer Interview Use no more than one pill per week for less than 1 year(nonuser) 1,2,3,5,6,10,11,35 7
 Muscat JE [124], 2003, US M/F 1992–2000 Hospitals in New York and Washington, D.C 997 918 Lung Cancer Questionnaire Use three tablets per week for 1 or more years(regular) 1,2,3,4 7
 Moysich KB [125], 2002, US M/F 1982–1998 RPCI 868 935 Lung Cancer Epidemiological questionnaire Use at least once a week for one year(regular) 1,3,4 8
Cohort studies
 Cao Y [8], 2016, US M/F 1980–2010
1986–2012
NHS and HPFS 2430 135,965 Lung cancer Questionnaire Use at least 2 times per week(regular) 3,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,28 9
Baik CS [126], 2015, US F 1993–2010 WHI 1902 143,841 Lung cancer Questionnaire Use at least twice a week in each of the two weeks preceding the interview(regular) 1,3,5,6,10,11,19,25,31,50,51,52 8
 Hollestein LM [91], 2014, Netherlandsa M/F 1998–2010 PHARMO and the Eindhoven Cancer Registry 915 109,276 Lung cancer Prescription database Low dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg daily)- not further defined 1,2,26,27 8
 Brasky TM [127], 2012, US M/F 2000–2007 The VITAL cohort 100 69,919 Lung cancer The baseline questionnaire Use aspirin ≥1 day/week for ≥ 1 year(regular) 1,2,3,4,5,10,11, 29,35,46,53,54 8
 McCormack VA [120], 2011, US M/F DDCHS 812 55,396 Lung cancer Questionnaire 1,3,5,11, 7
 Siemes C [96], 2008, Netherland M/F 1992–2004 The Rotterdam Study 134 7621 Lung cancer Questionnaire and prescriptions. The absence of a prescription for any non-aspirin or aspirin NSAID(no use) 1,2,10,18,21,25, 35,55,56,57 8
 Olse JH [128], 2008, Dermarka M/F 2002–2005 Danish Diet, Cancer and Health prospective cohort study 282 390 Lung cancer Questionnaire and prescription database Any use of aspirin or 1 year or more before the index date 1,2,3,4,38,39 7
 Hernández-Díaz S [129], 2007, UKa M/F 1995–2004 THIN database 4336 10,000 Lung cancer THIN database Had recorded prescription at any time before the index date 1,2,3,6,10, 14,33,35,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48 8
 Jacobs EJ [98], 2007, US M/F 1992–2003 Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort 1815 146,113 Lung cancer Questionnaire Use at least 30 “times” per month(daily use of adult-strength) 1,2,3,4,9,10,11, 18,25,28,29, 31,32,33 8
 Hayes JH [130], 2006, US F 1992–2002 IWHS 403 27,162 Lung cancer Questionnaire Never, less than one weekly, once weekly, two to five times weekly, and six or more times weekly 1,3,4,6,10,19, 29,58 7
 Akhmedkhanov A [131], 2002, US F 1994–1996 NYU and Women’s Health Study cohort. 81 808 Lung cancer Questionnaire Use three or more times per week for a period of 6 months or longer 1,3,4,49 7
 Schreinemachers DM [63], 1994, US M/F 1971–1987 The National Health and Examination Survey Ι 163 12,668 Lung cancer Self reported Use aspirin during the 30-day period before the interview 1,2 6
 Paganini-Hill A [103], 1989, US M/F 1981–1988 Population in Leisure World, Laguna Hills, US 111 13,870 Lung cancer Questionnaire Aspirin use: none,<daily, daily 2 4
  1. 1 = age, 2 = sex, 3 = smoking, 4 = education level, 5 = family history, 6 = alcohol intake, 7 = height, 8 = Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010, 9 = PSA test in past 2 y, 10 = BMI, 11 = race, 12 = folate, 13 = Charlson comorbidity index, 14 = statin, 15 = metformin, 16 = ACE inhibitors, 17 = Angiotensin II receptor blockers, 18 = physical activity, 19 = fruit, vegetable and/or vitamin intake, 20 = history of colonoscopy, 21 = total energy intake, 22 = ever use of calcium supplements in the past 5 years, 23 = former health checkup, 24 = red meat, 25 = hormone replacement therapy, 26 = unique number of dispensing, 27 = unique number of hospitalizations in the year prior to start of follow up, 28 = mammogram in past 2 y, 29 = other NSAIDs, 30 = area (county/region), 31 = history of coronary heart disease, 32 = diabetes, 33 = hypertension, 34 = housing type, 35 = history of arthritis, 36 = interview year, 37 = history of COLD, 38 = study, 39 = use of acetaminophen, 40 = smoking cessation advice by general practitioner, 41 = smoking cessation treatment, 42 = number of visits to general practitioner, 43 = number of referrals, 44 = use of oral corticosteroids, 45 = antihypertensives and other lipid-lowering drugs, 46 = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 47 = cerebrovascular disease, 48 = ischemic heart disease, 49 = menopausal status, 50 = age started and years since quitting smoking, 51 = emphysema, 52 = randomization arm of the DM trial, 53 = history of ulcer, migraine or chronic headache, osteoarthritis or chronic joint pain, 54 = coronary artery disease, 55 = C-reactive protein level, 56 = pack years of smoking, 57 = cholesterol, 58 = any heart disease/heart attack
  2. AHFTS American Health Foundation Tobacco Study, DDCHS Danish Diet Cancer and Health Study, HPFS Health Professionals follow-up study, IWHS Iowa Women’s Health Study, MSKCC Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NELCS New England Lung Cancer study, NHS nurses’ health study, NICCC National Israel Cancer Control Center, NYU New York University, RPCI the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, THIN the Health Improvement Network, VITAL the vitamins and lifestyle, WHI women’s health initiative
  3. aStudy deemed to be prone to immortal time bias