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Table 5 Characteristics of included studies- pancreatic cancer

From: Associations between aspirin use and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Sex Study period Source of subjects No of case No of control/cohort size Cancer site Exposure assessment Exposure Definition Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Case-control studies
 Risch HA [110], 2017, China M/F 2006–2011 Our Shanghai study 761 794 Pancreatic cancer In-person questionnaire interviews Use at least one tablet per week for 3 months or longer(regular) 1,2,3,5,7,10,50,51 7
 Kho PF [111], 2016, Australia M/F 2007–2011 The QPCS 522 652 Pancreatic cancer Questionnaire Long-term use of aspirin ((> 2 years) 1,2,3,6,10 8
 Streicher SA [112], 2014, US M/F 2005–2009 Population from Connecticut 360 682 Pancreatic cancer Questionnaire Use at least once a week on average, for 3 months or more 1,2,3,5,7,10,11,52 8
 Tan XL [113], 2011, US M/F 2004–2010 Patients from the Mayo Clinic 740 1043 Pancreatic cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin ≥1 day per month 1,2,3,7,10 6
 Pugh TFG [114], 2011, UK M/F 2004–2007 Clinical management databases in Norfolk and Leicestershire 206 251 Pancreatic cancer Medical records Use of aspirin - not further defined 1,2,3,7 6
 Bonifazi M [115], 2010, Italy M/F 1991–2008 Patients in in the province of Pordenone and in the greater Milan area, northern Italy 308 477 Pancreatic cancer Questionnaire Use at least once a week for more than 6 months(regular) 1,2,3,5,7,10,53,54 8
 Menezes RJ [116], 2002, US M/F 1982–1998 The RPCI 194 585 Pancreatic cancer Patient Epidemiology Data System (PEDS) and questionnaire Use at least once a week for six consecutive months(regular) 1,3,4 5
Cohort studies
 Cao Y [8], 2016, US M/F 1980–2010
1986–2012
NHS and HPFS 607 135,965 Pancreatic cancer Questionnaire Use at least 2 times per week(regular) 3,4,6,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24 9
 Brasky TM [92], 2014, US F 1998–2010 WHI 397 142,330 Pancreatic cancer Self-administered questionnaires Use at both baseline and year 3 visits (consistent) 1,3,4,5, 6,10,11,17,18,19,25,26,28,29,30,31,32,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48 9
 Bradley MC [117], 2010, UKa M/F 1995–2006 GPRD 564 3984 Pancreatic cancer Prescription Database Use 300 mg or more a day (high-dose) 3,6,7,10, 25,27,47,55, 8
 Jacobs EJ [98], 2007, US M/F 1992–2003 Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort 404 146,113 Pancreatic cancer Questionnaire Use at least 30 “times” per month(daily use of adult-strength) 1,2,3,5,7,10,11, 15,16,17,18,20,25, 45, 49 8
 Friis S [62], 2003, Denmarka M/F 1989–1997 Population from North Jutland County 62 29,470 Pancreatic cancer Prescription Database 75–150 mg once daily(low-dose aspirin) 1,2 8
 Anderson KE [118], 2002, US F 1992–1999 IWHS 80 28,283 Pancreatic cancer Questionnaire Never use any type of medication (never use) 1,3,7,19 7
 Schreinemachers DM [63], 1994, US M/F 1971–1987 The National Health and Examination Survey Ι 30 12,668 Pancreatic cancer Self reported Use aspirin during the 30-day period before the interview 1,2 6
  1. 1 = age, 2 = sex, 3 = smoking, 4 = family history, 5 = educational level, 6 = alcohol intake, 7 = diabetes, 8 = Fat distribution, 9 = social status, 10 = BMI, 11 = race, 12 = folate, 13 = height, 14 = Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010, 15 = PSA test in past 2 y, 16 = mammogram in past 2 y, 17 = hormone replacement therapy, 18 = physical activity, 19 = fruit, vegetable and/or vitamin intake, 20 = history of colonoscopy, 21 = total energy intake, 22 = ever use of calcium supplements in the past 5 years, 23 = former health checkup, 24 = red meat, 25 = other NSAIDs, 26 = area (county/region), 27 = prior cancer, 28 = migraine, 29 = ever use of calcium supplements in the past 5 years, 30 = red meat, 31 = Nitro-vasodilator use, 32 = height, 33 = unique number of hospitalizations in the year prior to start of follow up, 34 = observational study enrollment, 35 = diet modification trial enrollment, 36 = screening for cancer, 37 = age at menarche, 38 = age at menopause, 39 = gravidity, 40 = age atfirst birth, 41 = duration of estrogen therapy, 42 = duration of combined postmenopausal hormone therapy, 43 = hysterectomy status, 44 = use of antihypertensive medication, 45 = history of coronary heart disease, 46 = use of cholesterol-lowering medication, 47 = history of arthritis, 48 = history of ulcer, 49 = hypertension, 50 = H. pylori CagA seropositivity, 51 = ABO blood group A vs. non-A, 52 = ABO blood group O vs. non-O, 53 = center, 54 = year of interview, 55 = history of chronic pancreatitis
  2. GPRD General Practitioners Research Database, HPFS Health Professionals follow-up study, IWHS Iowa Women’s Health Study, NHS nurses’ health study, QPCS the Queensland Pancreatic Cancer Study, RPCI the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, WHI women’s health initiative
  3. aStudy deemed to be prone to immortal time bias