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Table 4 Characteristics of included studies- hepato-biliary cancer

From: Associations between aspirin use and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Sex Study period Source of subjects No of case No of control/cohort size Cancer site Exposure assessment Exposure Definition Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Case-control studies
 Choi J [104], 2016, US M/F 2000–2014 Patients seen at the Mayo Clinic 2395 4769 Cholangiocarcinoma Electronic medical record Use at least once per week at the index date 1,2,3,11,12,13,14,15 9
 Yang B [105], 2016, UK M/F 1988–2011 CPRD 814 3180 Primary liver cancer Medical records database Had two or more aspirin prescriptions recorded prior to the index date(ever use) 3,6,10,15,16,17,18 7
 Burr NE [106], 2014, UK M/F 2004–2010 NNUH and LGH 81 275 Cholangiocarcinoma Letters from general practitioners (GPs), hospital clerkings, surgical records, nursing notes and radiological reports Drug was recorded in any of the data sources 1,2,3,15 7
Cohort studies
 Kim G [107], 2017, Korea M/F 2003–2012 NHIS-NSC 229 1145 Hepatocellular carcinoma Prescription At least one prescription of aspirin between the cohort entry and the index date 1,2,19,20, 6
 Petrick JL [108], 2015, US M/F from 1993 AARP,AHS, USRT,BCDDP, PLCO,HPFS, CPSII, BWHS WHI,NHS 904 1,084,133 Hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma Questionnaire Any reported aspirin use in the 12 months prior to baseline 1,2,3,6,10,11,15, 21 7
 Liu E [109], 2005, China M/F 1997–2001 Population from Shanghai 368 1013 Gallbladder Cancer Questionnaire Use at least twice a week for longer than a month 1 year before interview 1,2,5, 22 6
 S Friis [62], 2003, Denmarka M/F 1989–1997 Population from North Jutland County 21 29,470 Liver cancer Prescription database 75–150 mg once daily(low-dose aspirin) 1,2 8
  1. 1 = age, 2 = sex, 3 = smoking, 4 = family history, 5 = educational level, 6 = alcohol intake, 7 = marriage, 8 = Fat distribution, 9 = social status, 10 = BMI, 11 = race,12 = primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), 13 = non-PSC-related cirrhosis, 14 = biliary tract diseases, 15 = diabetes, 16 = hepatitis B or C virus infection, 17 = rare metabolic disorders, 18 = use of paracetamol, antidiabetic medications, and statins,19 = follow–up duration, 20 = the date of the diabetes diagnosis, 21 = cohort (AARP, AHS, USRT, PLCO, HPFS, CPSII, IWHS, BWHS, WHI, NHS), 22 = biliary stone status
  2. AARP AARP diet and health study, AHS Agriculture Health Study, BCDDP the breast cancer detection demonstration project, BWHS black women’s health study, CPRD clinical practice research datalink, CPSII cancer prevention study II, HPFS Health Professionals follow-up study, IWHS Iowa Women’s Health Study, LGH Leicester General Hospital NHS Trust, NHIS-NSC National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort, NHS nurses’ health study, NNUH Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, PLCO prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial, USRT United State Radiologic Technologist Study, WHI women’s health initiative
  3. aStudy deemed to be prone to immortal time bias