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Table 18 Characteristics of included studies- skin cancer

From: Associations between aspirin use and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Sex Study period Source of subjects No of case No of control/cohort size Cancer site Exposure assessment Exposure Definition Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Case-control studies
 Reinau D [235], 2015, UK M/F 1995–2013 GPRD 73,262 96,854 Skin cancer Prescription database Last prescription ≤ 1 year before the index date(current user) 3,6,10, 29,43,47,48,49,50,51,52 8
 Johannesdottir SA [236], 2012, Denmark M/F 1991–2009 Population from northern Denmark 18,532 178,655 Skin cancer Prescription records Redeemed > 2 prescriptions during the entire study period 1,2,20,44,45,46 8
 Torti DC [237], 2011, US M/F 1997–2000 Population from New Hampshire and bordering regions 1022 1484 Skin cancer Interview Use at least four times a week for at least 1 month 1,2,3,53,54,55 8
 Curiel-Lewandrowski C [238], 2011, US M/F 2004–2007 Dana Farber Harvard Cancer Center Institutions and Dermatology Associates of Concord, Boston(USA) 400 600 Cutaneous melanoma Telephone interview Use at least once weekly within a year preceding the interview (current user) 56 8
 Jeter JM [239], 2011, US M/F 2000–2003 The GEM study 327 119 Melanoma Self-reported Daily basis for at least 3 months 1,2,4,53,57 6
 Asgari MM [240], 2010, US M/F 1994–2004 KPNC 415 415 Cutaneous squamous sell sarcinoma Questionnaire Use at least once a week for at least 1 year(regular) 3,4,5,30,53,56,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68 8
Cohort studies
 Hollestein LM [91], 2014, Netherlandsa M/F 1998–2010 PHARMO and the Eindhoven Cancer Registry 2363 109,276 Skin cancer Prescription database Low dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg daily)- not further defined 1,2,11,12 8
 Wysong A [241], 2014, US F 1993–1998 WHI 7652 54,728 Non-melanoma skin cancer Questionnaire Use ≥ 2 times/week for at least 2 weeks(regular) 1,3,5,7,10,14,15,19,21,29,43,69,70,71,72,73,74 6
 Brasky TM [92], 2014, US F 1998–2010 WHI 585 142,330 Melanoma Self-administered questionnaires Use at both baseline and year 3 visits (consistent) 1,3,4,5,6,10,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37 9
 Jeter JM [242], 2012, US F 1980–2008 NHS 17,074 92,125 Skin cancer Questionnaire Use at least 1–2 tablets/week or 1 day/week of regular use at any lifetime(current user) 1,3,4,7,10,14,15,54,57,75,76,77,78,79 7
 Cahoon EK [243], 2012, US M/F 1994–1998 2003–2005 United States Radiologic Technologists study 2215 58,213 Basal cell carcinoma Questionnaire Use at least 1 days per month in the past year 1,2,80 8
 Asgari MM [244], 2008, US M/F 2000–2005 The VITAL cohort 216 39,909 Melanoma Questionnaire Use at least once a week for a year in the 10-year period before baseline(ever use) 1,2,4,5,7,15,29, 30,56,59,69,73,81,82,83 8
 Jacobs EJ [98], 2007, US M/F 1992–2003 Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort 1049 146,113 Melanoma Questionnaire Use at least 30 “times” per month(daily use of adult-strength) 1,2,3,5,10,13,14,18,19,36,38,39,40,41,42 8
 Schreinemachers DM [63], 1994, US M/F 1971–1987 The National Health and Examination Survey Ι 69 12,668 Melanoma Self reported Use aspirin during the 30-day period before the interview 1,2 6
  1. 1 = age, 2 = sex, 3 = smoking, 4 = family history, 5 = educational level, 6 = alcohol intake, 7 = skin reaction to the sun, 8 = Fat distribution, 9 = social status, 10 = BMI, 11 = unique number of dispensing, 12 = unique number of hospitalizations in the year prior to start of follow up, 13 = race, 14 = physical activity, 15 = fruit, vegetable and/or vitamin intake, 16 = ever use of calcium supplements in the past 5 years, 17 = red meat, 18 = hormone replacement therapy, 19 = other NSAIDs, 20 = area (county/region), 21 = migraine, 22 = Nitro-vasodilator use, 23 = observational study enrollment, 24 = diet modification trial enrollment, 25 = screening for cancer, 26 = age at menarche, 27 = age at menopause, 28 = gravidity, 29 = history of arthritis, 30 = history of ulcer, 31 = age at first birth, 32 = duration of estrogen therapy, 33 = duration of combined postmenopausal hormone therapy, 34 = hysterectomy status, 35 = use of antihypertensive medication, 36 = history of coronary heart disease, 37 = use of cholesterol-lowering medication, 38 = mammography, 39 = history of colorectal endoscopy, 40 = history of PSA testing, 41 = diabetes, 42 = hypertension,43 = the number of general practitioner visits in the year before the index date, 44 = use of systemic glucocorticoids, cytostatic or immunosuppressive medication, 45 = drugs with pigmenting adverse effects, 46 = Charlson comorbidity index, 47 = photosensitising or phototoxic drugs,48 = inflammatory bowel disease, 49 = ischemic stroke/ transient ischemic attack, 50 = ischemic heart disease, 51 = psoriasis, 52 = systemic glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressants, 53 = skin type, 54 = lifelong number of painful sunburns, 55 = lifelong cumulative number of hours of sun exposure, 56 = number of sunburns of children, 57 = number of moles, 58 = eye color, 59 = natural hair color, 60 = exposure to industrial chemicals, 61 = history of freckling, 62 = outdoor sun exposure, 63 = occupational sun exposure, 64 = tanning bed use, 65 = history of high-risk exposures such as UV light, 66 = burn scar, 67 = radiation treatment, 68 = arsenic exposure, 69 = personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, 70 = personal history of melanoma, 71 = current and childhood summer sun exposure, 72 = sunscreen use, 73 = history of cardiovascular disease, 74 = regional solar radiation (Langleys), 75 = menopausal status and use of postmenopausal hormones, 76 = questionnaire cycle, 77 = ability to tan, 78 = UV-B availability at state of residence, 79 = height, 80 = solar UV exposure quartile calculated from summer erythemal UV values weighted by time outdoors, 81 = ever had moles removed, 82 = chronic pain in last year, 83 = kidney disease or ulcer
  2. GEM the genes, environment, and melanoma study, GPRD general practitioners research database, KPNC Kaiser Permanente Northern California population, NHS nurses’ health study, VITAL the vitamins and lifestyle, WHI women’s health initiative
  3. aStudy deemed to be prone to immortal time bias