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Table 14 Characteristics of included studies- bladder cancer

From: Associations between aspirin use and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Sex Study period Source of subjects No of case No of control/cohort size Cancer site Exposure assessment Exposure Definition Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Case-control studies
 Baris D [214], 2013, US M/F 2001–2004 Population from Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire 783 890 Bladder cancer Self-reported Use at least 20 times(any) 1,2,3,11,26,51 6
 Fortuny J [215], 2007, US M/F 1998–2001 The New Hampshire State Department of Health and Human Services’ rapid reporting Cancer Registry 456 369 Bladder cancer Interview Use at least four times a week for 1 month or longer prior to the reference date 1,2,3,25 7
 Fortuny J [216], 2006,Spain M/F 1997–2000 Patients from five regions in Spain (Barcelona, Valle’s/Bages, Alacant, Tenerife, and Asturias) 907 965 Bladder cancer Self-reported Use twice or more weekly for ≥ 1 month (regular) 1,2,3,25,26,52,53 8
 Castelao JE [217], 2000, US M/F 1987–1996 SEER cancer registry 1514 1514 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Use at least 20 times(any) 3,5,53,54,55,56, 57,58,59,60 7
 Steineck G [218], 1995, Sweden M/F 1985–1987 Population from the County of Stockholm 325 393 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Had ever taken aspirin-not further defined 1,2,3,55,56,61,62,63 5
Cohort studies
 Brasky TM [92], 2014, US F 1998–2010 WHI 175 142,330 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Use at both baseline and year 3 visits (consistent) 1,3,4,5,6,10,11,17,18,19,25,26,,28,29,30,31,32,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48 9
 Shih C [219], 2013, US M/F 2000–2010 The VITAL cohort 344 77,048 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Use at least once per week, for at least 1 year 1,2,3,4,5,11,49 8
 Daugherty SE [220], 2011, US M/F 1995–1996 AARP 1660 334,908 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin ≥ 2times/week (regular) 3,10,11,25,27 7
   1993–2001 PLCO Cancer Screening 704 154,952 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin ≥ 2times/week (regular) 3,10,11,25,27 7
   1994–1998 The USRT Study 97 90,972 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin ≥ 2times/week (regular) 3,10,11,25,27 7
 Genkinger JM [221], 2007, US M 1986–2004 HPFS 392 49,448 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Use 2 or more times per week(regular) 1,3,26,50 9
 Jacobs EJ [98], 2007, US M/F 1992–2003 Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort 867 146,113 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Use at least 30 “times” per month(daily use of adult-strength) 1,2,3,5,7,10,11, 15,16,17,18,22, 25,45, 63 8
 Friis S [62], 2003, Denmarka M/F 1989–1997 Population of North Jutland County 161 29,470 Bladder cancer Prescription database 75–150 mg once daily(low-dose aspirin) 1,2 8
 Schreinemachers DM [63], 1994, US M/F 1971–1987 The National Health and Examination Survey Ι 35 12,668 Bladder cancer Self reported Use aspirin during the 30-day period before the interview 1,2 6
 Paganini-Hill A [103], 1989, US M/F 1981–1988 Population from Leisure World, Laguna Hills, US 96 13,870 Bladder cancer Questionnaire Aspirin use: none,<daily, daily 2 4
  1. 1 = age, 2 = sex, 3 = smoking, 4 = family history, 5 = educational level, 6 = alcohol intake, 7 = history of colorectal endoscopy, 8 = Fat distribution, 9 = social status, 10 = BMI,11 = race, 12 = folate, 13 = height, 14 = Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010, 15 = PSA test in past 2 y, 16 = mammogram in past 2 y, 17 = hormone replacement therapy, 18 = physical activity, 19 = fruit, vegetable and/or vitamin intake, 20 = history of colonoscopy, 21 = total energy intake, 22 = diabetes, 23 = former health checkup, 24 = red meat, 25 = other NSAIDs, 26 = area (county/region), 27 = study, 28 = migraine, 29 = ever use of calcium supplements in the past 5 years, 30 = red meat, 31 = Nitro-vasodilator use, 32 = height, 33 = unique number of hospitalizations in the year prior to start of follow up, 34 = observational study enrollment, 35 = diet modification trial enrollment, 36 = screening for cancer, 37 = age at menarche, 38 = age at menopause, 39 = gravidity, 40 = age atfirst birth, 41 = duration of estrogen therapy, 42 = duration of combined postmenopausal hormone therapy, 43 = hysterectomy status, 44 = use of antihypertensive medication, 45 = history of coronary heart disease, 46 = use of cholesterol-lowering medication, 47 = history of arthritis, 48 = history of ulcer, 49 = indications for NSAID use, 50 = fluid intake, 51 = hispanic status, 52 = Metamizol, 53 = Acetic acids, 54 = number of years employed as hairdresser/barber, 55 = use of phenacetin, 56 = acetaminophen, 57 = Other salicylic acids, 58 = Propionic acids, 59 = Oxicam,60 = Pyrazolon derivatives, 61 = Dextropropoxyphene, 62 = Phenazon, 63 = Other analgesics (codeine, chlormezanone, caffeine), 63 = hypertension
  2. AARP AARP diet and health study, HPFS Health Professionals follow-up study, PLCO prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial, SEER surveillance, epidemiology and end results, USRT United State Radiologic Technologist Study, VITAL the vitamins and lifestyle, WHI women’s health initiative
  3. aStudy deemed to be prone to immortal time bias