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Table 11 Characteristics of included studies- prostate cancer

From: Associations between aspirin use and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Sex Study period Source of subjects No of case No of control/cohort size Cancer site Exposure assessment Exposure Definition Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Case-control studies
 Iqbal U [47], 2017, China M 2001–2011 The Taiwan NHI database 32,419 129,676 Prostate cancer Prescription Patients had aspirin prescribed at least for 2 months during the 3-year period before the initial cancer diagnosis 1,2,13,14, 15,16,17 7
 Skriver C [185], 2016, Denmark M 2000–2012 Danish nationwide registries 35,600 177,992 Prostate cancer Prescription Use aspirin ≥ 2 prescriptions redeemed on separate dates(ever use) 1, 4,14,28,30,36,37,38,,40, 8
 Veitonmäki T [186], 2013, Finland M 1995–2002 Finnish Cancer Registry 13,478 24,657 Prostate cancer Prescription database Ever use aspirin- not further defined 1,32 8
 Murad AS [187], 2011, UK M 2001–2008 ProtecT 1016 5043 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Ever use aspirin- not further defined 1,28,33,35 8
 Salinas CA [188], 2010, US M 2002–2005 SEER cancer registry 1000 942 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Use at least once per week for 3 months(ever use) 1,11,42 7
 Harris RE [189], 2007, US M 1999–2005 CHRI 24 39 Prostate cancer Medical-record At least two times per week for 2 years or more 1,3,5,6,10 5
 Bosetti C [190], 2006, Italy M 1991–2002 Population from the greater Milan area, the provinces of Pordenone, Gorizia, Latina and the urban area of Naples 1261 1131 Prostate cancer Standard questionnaire Use at least once a week for more than 6 months (regular) 1,4,5,34 5
 Dasgupta K [191], 2006, Canada M 1999–2002 RAMQ 2025 2150 Prostate cancer Prescription database Did not receive any prescription for aspirin (nonuser) 1,43 6
 Liu X [192], 2006, US M 2001–2004 Population from Cleveland, Ohio 471 468 Prostate cancer Personal interview Use at least twice a week for more than a month(any use) 1,11,44 5
 Menezes RJ [193], 2006, US M 1982–1998 RPCI 1029 1029 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Use at least once a week for at least 6 months (regular) 1,5,10 5
 Perron L [194], 2003, Canada M 1993–1995 RAMQ 2221 11,105 Prostate cancer Prescription database Ever use aspirin- not further defined 1,50 6
 Norrish AE [195], 1998, New Zealand M 1996–1997 Auckland Prostate Study 317 480 Prostate cancer Questionnaire At least once per week(regular) 1,50,51,52,53 7
 Neugut AI [80], 1998, US M 1989–1992 Columbia-Prebyterian Medical Center 319 189 Prostate cancer Medical record Use aspirin-not further defined 1,4,5 6
Cohort studies
 Cao Y [8], 2016, US M 1980–2010
1986–2012
NHS and HPFS 1019 135,965 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Use at least 2 times per week(regular) 3,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,70 9
 Lapi F [196], 2016, Italya M 2002–2013 HSD 187 13,453 Prostate Cancer Prescription database Use low-dose aspirin-not further defined 1,3,6,9,13,14,16,28,38,54,55,56,57 8
 Nordström T [197], 2015, Swedena M 2007–2012 Population from Stockholm County, Sweden 8430 204,241 Prostate cancer Swedish Prescribed Drug Register Any dispensed prescription of the drug within 2 years before biopsy 1,4,13,14, 58,59,60 5
 Hollestein LM [91], 2014, Netherlandsa M 1998–2010 PHARMO and the Eindhoven Cancer Registry 882 53,679 Prostate cancer Prescription database Low dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg daily)- not further defined 1,2,26,27 8
 Shebl FM [198], 2012, US M 1993–2001 PLCO 3573 29,450 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Regular use aspirin-not further defined 5,11,34, 42,62 7
 Mahmud SM [199], 2011, Canadaa M 1985–2000 Saskatchewan Ministry of Health (SH) databases and the Saskatchewan Cancer Registry (SCR). 9007 35,891 Prostate cancer Prescription database Had a participant ever filled a prescription of aspirin in the index class at any time during his exposure history 28,41,42 6
 Brasky TM [200], 2010, US M 2000–2007 VITAL Cohort 1547 34,132 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin ≥1 day/ week for ≥ 1 year(regular) 1,4,5,9,10,11,19,30,55, 65,66,67 5
 Siemes C [96], 2008, Netherland M 1992–2004 The Rotterdam Study 216 7621 Prostate cancer Questionnaire and prescriptions The absence of a prescription for any non-aspirin or aspirin NSAID(no use) 1,3,10,61 8
 Jacobs EJ [98], 2007, US M 1992–2003 Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort 5539 69,810 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Use at least 30 “times” per month(daily use of adult-strength) 1,3,4,9,10,11,18, 20,28,29,30,31 8
 Platz EA [201], 2005, US M 1980–2004 BLSA 141 9748 Prostate cancer Self-reported Had ever taken aspirin-not further defined 1,28,45,68 7
 García Rodríguez LA [44], 2004, UKa M 1995–2001 GPRD 2096 9579 Prostate cancer Prescription database No use of aspirin at any time before the index date(nonuser) 1,45,46,47,48,49 8
 Friis S [62], 2003, Denmarka M 1989–1997 Population of North Jutland County 196 29,470 Prostate cancer Prescription database 75–150 mg once daily(low-dose aspirin) 1,2 8
 Habel LA [202], 2002, US M 1964–1973 The Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in Northern California 2574 90,100 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Use more than six aspirin per days 1,4,11,69 6
 Schreinemachers DM [63], 1994, US M 1971–1987 The National Health and Examination Survey Ι 123 12,668 Prostate cancer Self reported Use aspirin during the 30-day period before the interview 1,2 6
 Paganini-Hill A [103], 1989, US M 1981–1988 Population from Leisure World, Laguna Hills, US 149 13,870 Prostate cancer Questionnaire Aspirin use: none,<daily, daily 2 4
  1. 1 = age, 2 = sex, 3 = smoking, 4 = education level, 5 = family history, 6 = alcohol intake, 7 = height, 8 = Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010, 9 = PSA test in past 2 y, 10 = BMI, 11 = race, 12 = folate, 13 = Charlson comorbidity index, 14 = statin, 15 = metformin, 16 = ACE inhibitors, 17 = Angiotensin II receptor blockers, 18 = physical activity, 19 = fruit, vegetable and/or vitamin intake, 20 = history of colonoscopy, 21 = total energy intake, 22 = ever use of calcium supplements in the past 5 years, 23 = former health checkup, 24 = mammogram in past 2 y, 25 = hormone replacement therapy, 26 = unique number of dispensing, 27 = unique number of hospitalizations in the year prior to start of follow up, 28 = other NSAIDs, 29 = history of heart attack, 30 = diabetes, 31 = hypertension, 32 = simultaneous use of other medications (cholesterol lowering drugs, anti-diabetic drugs, antihypertensive drugs and benign prostatic hyperplasia medication), 33 = the primary care centres from which they were recruited, 34 = study center, 35 = any paracetamol use, 36 = residence (by design), 37 = use of high-dose aspirin, 38 = 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, 39 = income, 40 = selected cardiovascular drugs, and antidepressants or neuroleptics, 41 = ever visited a urologist 1–11 years prior, 42 = SCREENED and volume of family physician visits in the 5 years prior to the index date, 43 = finasteride, 44 = medical institution, 45 = calendar year, 46 = prior BPH history, 47 = number of visits to general practitioners, 48 = referrals, 49 = hospitalizations, 50 = recent medical contacts, 51 = socio-economic status, 52 = total polyunsaturated fat consumption, 53 = a-linolenic acid and ratio of dietary n-6:long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 54 = presence of obesity, 55 = benign prostatic hypertrophy, 56 = alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists, 57 = immunosuppressive drugs, 58 = natural log-transformed prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration, 59 = PSA quotient, 60 = use of antidiabetic medication, 61 = C-reactive protein level, 62 = ibuprofen use, 63 = osteoarthritis, 64 = rheumatoid arthritis,65 = enlarged prostate, 66 = coronary artery disease, 67 = chronic joint pain, chronic headaches, and migraines, 68 = acetaminophen, 69 = and number of health checkups, 70 = red meat
  2. BLSA Baltimore Longitudinal study of Aging, CHRI Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, GPRD general practitioners research database, HPFS Health Professionals follow-up study, HSD health search IMS health longitudinal patient database, NHS nurses’ health study, PLCO prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial, ProtecT prostate testing for cancer and Treatment, RAMQ Re′gie de l’Assurance Maladie du Que’bec, RPCI the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, SEER surveillance, epidemiology and end results, VITAL the vitamins and lifestyle
  3. aStudy deemed to be prone to immortal time bias