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Table 3 Main results of Included Studies

From: Dairy products and colorectal cancer in middle eastern and north African countries: a systematic review

Author/ Year/Reference County and setting Study design and Population Exposure and Confounders Outcome Comparison Main finding and effect
Tayyem et al., (2016) [50]. -Jordan -Five large Jordanian hospitals including oncology services. -Case control study − 220 Cases were selected from five large Jordanian hospitals with oncology services. − 281 Controls were selected from hospital personnel, outpatients and visitors. -Exposure: meats, dairy products and fat. -Confounders: age, sex, BMI, PA, total EI, income, occupation, education level, marital status, cigarette smoking, other health problems and family history of CRC CRC in both sexes -Group 1: CRC cases (116 males and 104 females). -Group 2: healthy disease-free controls (Number of males and females was not determined). The daily consumption of: - Labaneh ORa = 1.42 (95% CI: 0.62–3.25), ptrend = 0.03. -Milk ORa = 1.24 (95% CI: 0.62–2.47), ptrend = 0.59. -Yoghurt ORa = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.25–2.32), ptrend = 0.65. -White cheese ORa = 1.06 (95% CI: 0.46–2.45), ptrend = 0.06. - Ice cream: ORa = 1.68 (95% CI: 0.77–3.65), ptrend = 0.11. The weekly consumption of: - Cooked yogurt ORa = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.26–1.39), ptrend = 0.03. The monthly consumption of: - Processed cheese ORa = 0.29(95% CI: 0.06–1.45), ptrend = 0.004.
Suhad et al., (2015) [47]. -Jordan -Five large Jordanian hospitals including oncology services. -Case control study − 167 Cases were selected from five major Jordanian hospitals including an oncology center. − 240 Controls were selected from hospital personnel, outpatients, visitors, and accompanying individuals (not a first degree relative). -Exposure: five food groups-grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, and meat and legumes. -Confounders: total EI, age, sex, PA, family history of CRC, household income, marital status, and cigarette smoking. CRC in both sexes -Group 1: CRC cases (79 males and 88 females). -Group 2: Healthy controls (108 males and 132 females). -Milk ORa = 0.75(95% CI: 0.40–1.40), -Yoghurt ORa = 0.621 (95% CI: 0.36–1.06) -Labaneh ORa = 1.32 (95% CI: 0.76–2.27) -White cheese ORa = 1.46 (95% CI: 0.86–2.47).
Mahfouz et al., (2014) [51]. -Egypt -Minia oncology center -Case control study − 150 Cases were selected from Minia oncology center. − 300 Controls were selected from community -Exposure: dietary and lifestyles factors. -Confounders: PA, fruit and vegetables. CRC in both sexes -Group 1: CRC cases receiving any treatment (72 males and 78 females) -Group 2: Controls (144 males and 156 females). Inverse association with calcium rich diet ORa = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04–0.17).
Arafa et al., (2011) [46]. -Jordan -Al-Bashir Hospital, the principal governmental center for CRC registry and therapy -Case control study − 220 Cases were selected from Al-Bashir Hospital. − 220 Controls were selected from the outpatient departments. -Exposure: smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of CRC, vitamins supplement, monthly income and physical activity, dietary intake using a FFQ. -Confounders: routine exercise practice, smoking history, BMI, fruit, vegetables, meats, tea. CRC in both sexes Group 1: CRC cases (118 males and 102 females) Group 2: Controls (118 males and 102 females). -Milk, yogurt and cheese group OR = 1.60 (95% CI: 0.84–3.04). -Calcium ORa = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99–1.00).
Guesmi et al., (2010) [48]. -Tunisia -Surgery service in Nicole Charles Hospital And in Institut Salah Azaiez of Cancerology -Case control study − 32 Cases were selected from Nicole Charles Hospital And in Institut Salah Azaiez of Cancerology − 61 Controls were selected from surgery and orthopaedic departments. -Exposure: alimentary factors like meats group, fruits, vegetables, Raw oil, olive oil, full cereals, sweets and methods of cooking. -Confounders: Age, sex, geographic origin, smoking, anemia, sport, walking, frequency of consumption (frequently / rarely), methods of cooking. CRC in both sexes -Group 1: CRC cases (12 males and 20 females) -Group 2: Controls (39 males and 22 females). Milk ORa = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.02–0.71).
Nashar et al., (2008) [49]. -Saudi –Arabia -King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh -Case-control study −50 Cases were selected from the inpatients in KFSH and RC. − 50 Controls were selected from the outpatients in KFSH and RC. -Exposure: Eating habits with the frequency of consumption. - Confounders: frequency of consumption. Newly colon cancer in both sexes -Group 1: CRC cases (25 males and 25 females). -Group 2: healthy controls (25 males and 25 females). -For both sexes -Milk OR = 9.88 (95% CI: 3.80–24.65). -Laban OR = 18.66 (95% CI: 3.06–113.86). -Labnah OR = 24 (95% CI: 1.74–330.82). -For men -Cheese OR = 8 (95% CI: 1.40–45.75). -Laban OR = 15 (95% CI: 1.58–142.17). -For females -Laban OR = 27 (95% CI: 1.26–578.38).
Rozen et al., (2001) [52]. -Israël -Gastro-enterology department at the Tel Aviv Medical Center -Clinical trial − 125 adenoma patients: − 68 Intervened patients receiving 1.5 g calcium ion/day (5 chewable calcium carbonate tablets daily). − 57 Non-intervened patients receiving no treatment. -Exposure: dietary factors, lifestyle habits, and calcium supplementation. -Confounders: dietary components as fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and fluid as well as tobacco uses. Adenoma patients, without a family history of colorectal neoplasia. - Intervention group: 33 patients completed the 1 year trial (20 males and 13 females). - Non-intervention group: 19 patients completed rectal biopsy (13 males and 6 females). -The REP labeling index decreased in 58% of calcium-intervened patients and in only 26% of non-intervened patients (p = 0.04). -The interaction between the mean daily total fat and calcium effect on LI was significantly negative (in opposite directions p = 0.02). -The interaction between the higher mean daily intake of total carbohydrates and the effect of calcium on LI was significantly positive (p = 0.001)
  1. EI: energy intake; CI: confidence interval; FFQ: food frequency questionnaire, ORa: Adjusted Odds Ratio; REP: rectal epithelial proliferation; LI: labeling index; BMI: body mass index; PA: physical activity.