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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis of factors influencing the 5-year overall survival for patients who underwent chemotherapy

From: Impact of timing of adjuvant chemotherapy on survival in stage III colon cancer: a population-based study

Variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis*
HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
Gender    0.136    
 Male 1      
 Female 0.952 0.893–1.015     
Age at diagnosis, years    < 0.001    < 0.001
 66–70 1    1   
 71–75 1.157 1.054–1.269   1.133 1.030–1.245  
 76–80 1.359 1.238–1.492   1.330 1.209–1.463  
  > 80 1.929 1.752–2.123   1.834 1.657–2.029  
Race    < 0.001    0.001
 White 1    1   
 Black 1.039 0.922–1.171   0.980 0.864–1.112  
 Asian 0.625 0.503–0.777   0.636 0.511–0.793  
 Other 0.989 0.836–1.169   0.961 0.811–1.139  
Marital status    < 0.001    0.011
 Single+Separated 1    1   
 Married 0.818 0.723–.926   0.856 0.755–0.970  
 Divorced+Widowed 0.994 0.874–1.129   0.948 0.833–1.079  
 Other 0.838 0.670–1.047   0.905 0.723–1.133  
Residence location    0.222    
 Big Metro 1      
 Metro or Urban 0.942 0.878–1.010     
 Less Urban or Rural 0.996 0.901–1.102     
Median household income    0.023    0.872
 1st quartile 1    1   
 2nd quartile 0.993 0.906–1.088   1.042 0.943–1.152  
 3rd quartile 0.926 0.843–1.016   1.000 0.895–1.119  
 4th quartile 0.872 0.795–0.957   1.013 0.893–1.15  
 Unknown 0.945 0.795–1.123   1.056 0.860–1.298  
Level of education    < 0.001    0.001
 1st quartile 1    1   
 2nd quartile 1.164 1.061–1.278   1.154 1.045–1.274  
 3rd quartile 1.159 1.055–1.272   1.142 1.022–1.276  
 4th quartile 1.262 1.149–1.385   1.286 1.130–1.463  
 Unknown 1.142 0.960–1.358   N/Aa N/Aa  
Year of diagnosis    < 0.001    < 0.001
 1992–1996 1    1   
 1997–2000 0.863 0.784–0.950   0.833 0.756–0.918  
 2001–2004 0.814 0.748–0.885   0.754 0.692–0.822  
 2005–2008 0.667 0.605–0.737   0.609 0.549–0.675  
Primary tumor site    < 0.001    0.006
 right-sided colon 1    1   
 left-sided colon 0.822 0.767–0.880   0.891 0.829–0.957  
 unknown 1.241 0.988–1.559   1.034 0.821–1.302  
Histologic grade    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Well 1    1   
 Moderate 1.156 0.987–1.353   1.073 0.915–1.257  
 Poor+Undifferentiated 1.748 1.487–2.055   1.384 1.174–1.630  
 Unknown 1.274 0.991–1.638   1.120 0.869–1.445  
Histologic type    < 0.001    0.101
 Adenocarcinoma 1    1   
 Mucinous carcinoma 1.123 1.026–1.229   1.024 0.934–1.123  
 Signet-ring cell carcinoma 1.893 1.503–2.384   1.289 1.019–1.632  
pT category    < 0.001    < 0.001
 pT1 1    1   
 pT2 1.071 0.824–1.391   1.019 0.783–1.325  
 pT3 2.025 1.616–2.536   1.594 1.269–2.002  
 pT4a 2.98 2.348–3.782   2.205 1.732–2.806  
 pT4b 5.459 4.253–7.008   3.404 2.636–4.395  
pN category    < 0.001    < 0.001
 pN1a 1    1   
 pN1b 1.374 1.263–1.495   1.305 1.199–1.420  
 pN2a 1.844 1.682–2.021   1.675 1.526–1.838  
 pN2b 3.215 2.920–3.541   2.874 2.595–3.183  
Preoperative intestinal obstruction    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No 1    1   
 Yes 1.425 1.319–1.540   1.246 1.152–1.349  
Preoperative intestinal perforation    < 0.001    0.001
 No 1    1   
 Yes 2.284 1.723–3.028   1.628 1.223–2.168  
HCC risk score    < 0.001    < 0.001
 1st quartile 1    1   
 2nd quartile 0.950 0.865–1.043   1.161 1.053–1.280  
 3rd quartile 1.109 1.010–1.217   1.347 1.223–1.483  
 4th quartile 1.447 1.315–1.593   1.644 1.489–1.815  
Number of examined lymph node    0.003    < 0.001
  ≥ 12 1    1   
  < 12 1.102 1.034–1.175   1.295 1.209–1.387  
Postoperative radiotherapy    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No 1    1   
 Yes 1.620 1.391–1.887   1.323 1.133–1.545  
Timing to AC    < 0.001    < 0.001
  ≤ 4 weeks 1    1   
 5–8 weeks 0.982 0.867–1.113   1.045 0.921–1.185  
 9–12 weeks 1.169 1.019–1.341   1.222 1.063–1.405  
 13–16 weeks 1.237 1.031–1.483   1.252 1.041–1.505  
  ≥ 17 weeks 2.207 1.870–2.604   1.969 1.663–2.331  
  1. Abbreviation: HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval, HCC Hierarchical Condition Categories, AC Adjuvant chemotherapy
  2. *Only variables with a p < 0.05 in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis
  3. aunavailable because of colinearity with the variable of Median household income