Skip to main content

Table 2 Incidence of “gsp” in “receptive organs”

From: The curious case of Gαs gain-of-function in neoplasia

Site Histology (Dysplasia/Neoplasia) Incidence % (n) Refs
Thyroid Toxic thyroid adenoma 23% (65) [102,103,104]
Non functional adenoma 0% (31) [102, 104]
Carcinoma 0% (18) [104, 105]
Pituitary GH-secreting adenoma 41% (504) [106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126]
Prolactin-secreting adenoma 0% (7) [107]
Non functioning 3% (32) [107]
Muscle Intramuscolar myxoma 45% (101) [39, 127, 128]
Various myxoid lesions 0% (105) [39, 127,128,129,130]
Bone Fibrous dysplasia (FD) 81% (414) [127, 131,132,133,134]
Low grade periosteal osteosarcoma 0% (11) [135]
Low grade central osteosarcoma 3% (35) [135,136,137]
Low grade parosteal osteosarcoma 0% (80) [135, 137]
Osteofibrous dysplasia 0% (13) [132, 134, 138]
Ossifying fibroma 0% (66) [131, 132]
Blood Hematological conditions 0.6% (512) [139,140,141]
Kidney Renal cell carcinoma 17% (30) [142]
Lung Mucinous cystoadenoma 0.5% (208) [24, 68, 143]
Pancreas Intraduct. Papill. Mucin. Neop.(IPMN) 58% (809) [17, 19,20,21, 30, 68, 144,145,146,147,148]
Incipient IPMN 33% (21) [149]
Intraduct. Tubulopapill. Neop. (ITPN) 60% (15) [146]
Intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) 2% (246) [20, 150]
Serous cystoadenoma (SCN) 0% (54) [20, 144]
Mucin. Cyst.Neop. (MCN) 0% (31) [20, 144]
Neuroendocrine tumor 0% (52) [20]
Ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) 0.4% (253) [20, 30, 144, 145, 150]
Biliary tract IPMN of the bile duct 23% (120) [42, 151,152,153]
Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia 1% (82) [153, 154]
Stomach Pyloric gland adenoma 48% (23) [41]
Gastric adenocarc. of the fundic gland 24% (29) [64, 74]
Hyperplastic gastric polyps 0% (10) [127]
Foveolar type adenoma 0% (23) [41]
Intestinal type adenoma 0% (34) [41]
Gastric adenocarcinoma 0% (71) [41]
Duodenum Pyloric gland adenoma 92% (35) [41]
Gastric foveolar metaplasia 41% (66) [66]
Gastric heterotopia 28% (81) [66]
Adenocarcinoma 17% (30) [66]
Gastroent. neuroen. tum. (GEP-NET) 0% (31) [155]
Colon-rectum Villous adenoma 67% (55) [155,156,157,158]
Tubular villous adenoma 4% (154) [155,156,157]
Tubular adenoma 0% (28) [155, 157]
Polyps 0% (45) [156]
Adenocarcinoma 3% (820) [68, 155,156,157,158,159]
Liver Normal liver Intrahepat.cholangioc 12%(43) [160]
Advanc. Intrahepatic cholangiocarc 3% (38) [160]
Hepatocell. Adenoma 4% (179) [22, 161]
Hepatocell. Carcinoma 0.8% (245) [22]
Fluke-ass. cholangiocarcinoma 9.3% (53) [23]
Appendix Low grade app. muc. neop. (LAMN) 43% (84) [31, 40, 68, 162, 163]
Adenocarcinoma 46% (106) [31, 40, 68, 69, 162,163,164]
Gonads Leydig cell stromal tumor 67% (6) [165]
Lobular Endocer. Glandular Hyperpl. 28% (32) [166]
Juvenile Ovarian granul. cell tumor 30% (30) [167]
Mucinous cystoadenoma 9% (45) [68, 168]
Mucinous border line tumor 4% (53) [68, 168]
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma 2% (45) [68, 168]
Ovarian granulosa cell tumor 0% (25) [169, 170]
Other sex cord stromal tumors 0% (6) [170]
Adenocarcinoma 4% (92) [166]
Squamous cell carcinoma 0% (43) [166]
Adrenocortical Cortisol producing adenoma 20% (25) [28, 90, 171]
Adrenocrotical Carcinoma 3% (40) [80]
  1. An extensive list of neoplasias, flanked by gsp prevalence. Numbers in bold correspond to tumors presenting a rate over 10%. In each responsive tissue/organ, incidences in the double digits often pinpoint a single diagnosis that stands out among other virtually gsp negative tumor types. The large majority of other neoplasms are negative, for instance ref [50] analyzed 1126 cases falling within 15 diagnosis and found all negatives