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Table 3 Prevalence of MMTV like env sequence in human breast cancer samples and controls in published articles between 1995 and 2014 from different geographical location

From: Prevalence of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-like sequences in human breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal breast tissues in Saudi Arabia

Year Geographic location Breast cancer samples Control samples Reference
Number MMTV-like env positivity no. (%) Number MMTV-like env positivity no. (%)
1995 USA 314 121 (38.5%) 136
(29 fibroadenoma and 107 reduction mammoplasty)
4 (2.9%) [5]
2000 USA 72 27 (37%) 35
(25 negative biopsy, 5 reduction mammoplasty and 5 adjacent breast tissue)
0 (0%) [7]
2001 USA 106 32 (30.1%) 106
(paired breast tissue)
1 (0.94) [6]
2003 Australia 45 Caucasian Australian, 120, Vietnamese
41 Vietnamese- Australian
19 (42.2%) Caucasian Australian, 1(0.8%), Vietnamese
0 (0%) Vietnamese- Australian
111 Australian and 60 Vietnamese (normal breast tissues) 2 (1.8%) Australian and 0 (0%) Vietnamese [17]
2004 Australia 128 50 (40%) [43]
2004 Australia 136
+  13 male breast cancer
43 (32%)
+  8 (62%)
164
(111 normal breast tissue,25 fibroadenoma, 4 hyperplasia, 25 fibrocystic) +  52 male (gynecomastia)
15 (9%)
+  10 (19%)
[44]
2004 Tunisia 38 28 (73%) [38]
2006 Italy 45 15 (33%) 40
(8 normal breast tissue, 4 blood from breast cancer patients, 20 other cancers and 8 blood from healthy blood donor)
0 [39]
2007 Mexico 119 5 (4.2%) [45]
2008 Australia 50 28 (56%) [10]
2008 Tunisia 122 17 (13.9%) 122
(adjacent breast tissue)
0 (0%) [34]
2008 Japan 46 0 (0%) 3 benign breast tumor 0 (0%) [35]
2010 Australia 74 33 (45%) 29
(reduction mammoplasty)
0 (0%) [37]
2011 Australia 42 0 (0%) [46]
2012 Australia 50 39 (78%) 40
(milk from normal lactating women)
8 (32%) [9]
2012 Iran 50+  300 blood from breast cancer patient 0 (0%) 300
(blood from healthy donor)
0 (0%) [36]
2013 Mexico 86 0 (0%) 65
(adjacent breast tissue)
0 (0%) [47]
2013 Iran 40 0 (0%) [48]
2014 Mexico 458 57 (12.4%) 458
(adjacent breast tissue)
72 (15.7%) [33]
2014 Pakistan 80+  80 paired blood samples 16 (20%) [40]
2014 Morocco 42 24 (57%) 18 (matched normal breast tissue from safety margins) 6 (33.3%) [41]
2017 Pakistan 250 samples 29.3% [49]
2017 Myanmar 58 samples 1 (1.7%) [50]