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Table 2 Odds ratios for tumor protein expression status of women with diabetes treated with insulin compared to women not treated with insulin

From: The association of diabetes mellitus and insulin treatment with expression of insulin-related proteins in breast tumors

Women with breast cancer and diabetes
  Independent variable of exposure
  Insulinb vs. No Insulinc Insulinb vs. No Insulinc
Dependent variablea crude OR (95% CI) P adjusted ORd(95% CI) P
p-ER + 1.13 (0.38–2.19) 0.73 1.08 (0.53–2.19) 0.82
EGFR + 1.84 (0.69–4.91) 0.22 1.67 (0.60–4.67) 0.33
p-ERK 1/2 + 1.31 (0.68–2.53) 0.42 1.24 (0.63–2.44) 0.54
p-mTOR + 2.41 (1.18–4.93) 0.02 2.35 (1.13–4.88) 0.02
IGF1R + 2.47 (1.07–5.67) 0.03 2.36 (1.02–5.52) 0.04
  1. aLogistic regression for tumor IHC marker as the dependent variable, with a negative staining of the tumor marker as reference category. bWomen with diabetes treated with insulin (analogues) regardless the use of concomitant noninsulin antidiabetic drugs. cWomen with diabetes treated only with diet and exercise and users of noninsulin antidiabetic drugs only. dAdjusted for menopause (pre/post) at breast cancer diagnosis and BMI closest measure prior to breast cancer diagnosis (continuous). p-ER Phosphorylated estrogen receptor, EGFR Epidermal growth = factor receptor, p-ERK Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p-mTOR Phosphorylated mechanistic target of rapamycin, IGF1R Insulin growth factor 1 receptor, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval