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Table 3 Association between smoking history and prostate cancer, using different smoking assessment approaches

From: Smoking and prostate cancer: a life course analysis

Smoking assessment approaches. Cases n = 394 (%) Controls n = 794 (%) ORa 95% CI ORb 95% CI
Smoking status at interview
 Never 128(32.5) 261(32.9) 1.0 1.0
 Former 209(53.0) 301(37.9) 1.41 1.07–1.86 1.13 0.70–1.83
 Current 57(14.5) 232(29.2) 0.50 0.35–0.72 0.42 0.20–0.86
Average smoking index in life (pack/year)
 Never smoker 128(32.5) 261(32.9) 1.0 1.0
 0.15–5.2 85(21.6) 177(22.3) 0.98 0.70–1.38 1.07 0.75–1.53
 5.3–14.0 74 (18.8) 179 (22.5) 0.84 0.60–1.18 0.90 0.62–1.30
 14.01–112.0 107 (27.2) 177(22.3) 1.22 0.89–1.68 1.13 0.80–1.60
Life course smoking patterns
Among ever smokerc
 Never smoker 128(32.5) 261(32.9) 1.0 1.0
 A 228(57.9) 474(59.7) 0.99 0.77–1.29 1.06 0.80–1.41
 B 38(9.6) 59(7.4) 1.30 0.82–2.05 1.15 0.70–1.89
Among former smokerc
 Never smoker 128(38.0) 261(46.4) 1.0 1.0
 A 175(51.9) 277(49.3) 1.27 0.96–1.69 1.32 0.97–1.79
 B 34(10.1) 24(4.3) 2.85 1.62–5.01 2.49 1.35–4.58
  1. aAdjusted by age at interview
  2. bAdjusted by age at interview, educational level, family history of prostate cancer in first-degree relatives, chronic and sexually transmitted diseases, life course physical activity, dairy and energy intake. Smoker status at interview model, also was adjusted by number of cigarettes and smoking duration
  3. cPattern A: characterized by males who reported low and constant smoking intensity, Pattern B: males with an initial period of low smoking intensity, followed by an increase during the second period
  4. Text in bold denotes statistical significance