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Table 1 Selected characteristics of the study population according to cases and controls

From: Smoking and prostate cancer: a life course analysis

Characteristics Cases (n = 394) Controls (n = 794) p valuea
Marital status (%)
 Unitedb 304 (77.2%) 636 (80.1%) 0.24
 Not united 90 (22.8%) 158 (19.9%)
Educational level (%)
 Elementary school or less 177 (44.9%) 358 (45.1%) < 0.001
 Junior high school 66 (16.7%) 199 (25.1%)
 High school 70 (17.8%) 144 (18.1%)
 University or more 81 (20.6%) 93 (11.7%)
History of chronic diseasesc (%)
 Yes 229 (58.1%) 327 (41.2%) < 0.001
 No 165 (41.9%) 467 (58.8%)
History of STDd (%)
 Yes 105 (26.7%) 87 (11.0%) < 0.001
 No 288 (73.1%) 706 (88.9%)
 Missing 1 (0.2%) 1 (0.1%)
Family history of PCe (%)
 Yes 41 (10.2%) 20 (2.6%) < 0.001
 No 353 (89.6%) 774 (97.5%)
Dairy consumption (portion/d) (%)
 Low 124 (32.1%) 286 (36.7%) 0.004
 Middle 104 (26.1%) 251 (31.1%)
 High 166 (41.8%) 257 (32.2%)
Energy
 Mean ± SD 2172.13 ± 717.81 1959.28 ± 681.88 < 0.001
Life course PA patternsf (%)
 None 58 (14.7%) 74 (9.3%) < 0.001
 A 98 (24.9%) 135 (17.0%)
 B 218 (55.3%) 532 (67.0%)
 C 20 (5.1%) 53(6.7%)
  1. at-test or χ2 test
  2. bUnited: Married and common law
  3. cHistory of hypertension, diabetes and/or dyslipidemia
  4. dHistory of sexual transmitted diseases
  5. eFamily history of PC in first degree relatives
  6. fPattern A, males who had high PA intensity at 15-18 years old and decreased over their life course; Pattern B, males who maintained a constantly low PA intensity and Pattern C, males with constantly high PA intensity