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Table 1 Experimental level, advantages, disadvantages and contraindications of FP options used in oncofertility around the world

From: Fertility preservation healthcare circuit and networks in cancer patients worldwide: what are the issues?

FP option Experimental level Advantages Disadvantages Contraindication to FP technique
Embryo banking after puncture of mature oocytes Standard method Mature technology Delay cancer treatment by 2-3 weeks Ethical and legal requirements Need for a partner with whom they wish to have a child Presence of a CI to hormonal stimulation*
Embryo banking after puncture of immature oocytes Experimental methods Allows immediate cancer treatment Ethical and legal requirements Need for a partner with whom they wish to have a child  
Mature oocyte cryopreservation Experimental method Alternative to embryo cryopreservation for women who do not have a partner or do not want to use donated sperm Legal property of the woman Better outcomes compared to IVM of cryopreserved immature oocytes Delays cancer treatment by 2-3 weeks Presence of a CI to hormonal stimulation *
Immature oocyte cryopreservation Experimental method Women without partner or who do not want to use donated sperm Allows immediate cancer treatment Legal property of the woman Less damage is caused by cryopreservation of immature oocytes than mature oocytes Data on efficacy in cancer patients are not available  
Ovarian tissue transplantation Highly experimental Restoration of endocrine function Invasive procedure Risk of reintroduction of aggressive cancer cells in some type of cancer ** Women older than 39 years
In vitro follicle maturation (IVM) Highly experimental Alternative to tissue transplantation Minimal risk for ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome Technical difficulties  
Oophoropexy or Ovarian transposition Experimental methods Can be used for therapies requiring pelvic irradiation Ovarian protection Possible spontaneous pregnancy No protection against chemotherapy or whole-body irradiation Carcinogenic risk  
  1. *Contraindications (CI) to hormonal stimulation: prepubertal girls, hormone-responsive cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome
  2. **Significantly elevated risk in patients with leukemia or ovarian tumor