Skip to main content

Table 1 Experimental level, advantages, disadvantages and contraindications of FP options used in oncofertility around the world

From: Fertility preservation healthcare circuit and networks in cancer patients worldwide: what are the issues?

FP option Experimental level Advantages Disadvantages Contraindication to FP technique
Embryo banking after puncture of mature oocytes Standard method Mature technology Delay cancer treatment by 2-3 weeks
Ethical and legal requirements
Need for a partner with whom they wish to have a child
Presence of a CI to hormonal stimulation*
Embryo banking after puncture of immature oocytes Experimental methods Allows immediate cancer treatment Ethical and legal requirements
Need for a partner with whom they wish to have a child
 
Mature oocyte cryopreservation Experimental method
Alternative to embryo cryopreservation for women who do not have a partner or do not want to use donated sperm
Legal property of the woman
Better outcomes compared to IVM of cryopreserved immature oocytes
Delays cancer treatment by 2-3 weeks Presence of a CI to hormonal stimulation *
Immature oocyte cryopreservation Experimental method
Women without partner or who do not want to use donated sperm
Allows immediate cancer treatment
Legal property of the woman
Less damage is caused by cryopreservation of immature oocytes than mature oocytes
Data on efficacy in cancer patients are not available  
Ovarian tissue transplantation Highly experimental Restoration of endocrine function Invasive procedure
Risk of reintroduction of aggressive cancer cells in some type of cancer **
Women older than 39 years
In vitro follicle maturation (IVM) Highly experimental Alternative to tissue transplantation Minimal risk for ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome Technical difficulties  
Oophoropexy or Ovarian transposition Experimental methods Can be used for therapies requiring pelvic irradiation
Ovarian protection
Possible spontaneous pregnancy
No protection against chemotherapy or whole-body irradiation
Carcinogenic risk
 
  1. *Contraindications (CI) to hormonal stimulation: prepubertal girls, hormone-responsive cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome
  2. **Significantly elevated risk in patients with leukemia or ovarian tumor