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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the Meta-analysis

From: Screening for distress in patients with primary brain tumor using distress thermometer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author Year Country Study design Patients, n Analytic Case, n (%) Male patients, n (%) Age, years, Mean ± SD (range) WHO low-grade, n WHO high-grade, n Surgery,% Married, % White,% When distress assessed initially Distress cut-off
Rooney 2012 UK longitudinal 154 133 57.4 54.2 ± 12.3 (19–76) 22 133 74.8 71 NA during primary radiotherapy DT ≥ 4/DT ≥ 6
Trad 2015 Australia longitudinal 128 96 NA NA 57 39 NA NA NA newly diagnosis or first recurrence DT ≥ 4
Goebel 2011 Germany cross-sectional 159 159 48.4 55.2 ± 15.5(18–82) 87 72 NA 71.1 NA Post-operation DT ≥ 4/DT ≥ 6
Keir 2007 USA cross-sectional 75 75 63 49 (24–70) 8 63 NA NA 97 After diagnosis DT ≥ 4/DT ≥ 6
Kvale 2009 USA cross-sectional 50 50 58 53.3 ± 13.6 (20–85) 0 50 NA NA 84 first to the Neuro-oncology clinic DT ≥ 4
Renovanz 2013 Germany longitudinal 134 134 35 52.7 ± 14.8 (18–81) 47 51 100 NA NA Pre-operation DT ≥ 6
Rooney 2013 UK longitudinal 154 154 60.9 55.9 ± 13.4 12 57 NA NA NA shortly after starting chemo/radiotherapy DT ≥ 4/DT ≥ 6
Goebel 2010 Germany cross-sectional 150 150 43.3 53.2 ± 14.1 (18–79) 73 77 100 64.3 NA 1 week after/before operation DT ≥ 6
Keir 2008 USA cross-sectional 83 83 63.0 50 (25–70) 0 83 96.4 NA 96 After diagnosis DT ≥ 4
Halkett 2015 Australia cross-sectional 116 116 70.7 56 ± 13.3 (18–86) 0 116 NA 82.9 NA Pre-chemoradiotherapy DT ≥ 4
Randazzo 2017 USA cross-sectional 829 798 54.0 51 (18–86) 218 576 NA 59 NA Primary diagnosis or first recurrence DT ≥ 4
Renovanz 2017 Germany cross-sectional 244 173 53.2 51.0 ± 13.9 (21–78) 32 141 68 NA(72% with a partner)   first to the Neuro-oncology clinic DT ≥ 6
  1. DT Distress Thermometer, NA not applicable, CI confidence interval