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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Intra-arterial ethanol embolization augments response to TACE for treatment of HCC with portal venous tumor thrombus

Variable Treatment group (n = 31) Control group (n = 57) P-value
Agea (year) 54.29 ± 11.87 54.16 ± 13.42 0.96
Genderb    0.52
 Male 25 (80.6) 49 (86)  
 Female 6 (19.4) 8 (14)  
Classification of PVTTb    0.37
 Vp3 10 (32.3) 24 (42.1)  
 Vp4 21 (67.7) 33 (57.9)  
ECOG performanceb    0.43
 0 17 (54.8) 34 (59.6)  
 1 9 (29.1) 20 (35.1)  
 2 5(16.1) 3(5.3)  
Cause of liver diseaseb    1.00
 HBV 31 (100) 57 (100)  
 Other 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Liver Cirrhosisb    0.75
 Absent 8 (25.8) 13 (22.8)  
 Present 23 (74.2) 44 (77.2)  
Distant metastasisb    0.53
 Lung 2 (6.5) 2 (3.5)  
 Others 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Ascitesb    0.71
 Absent 26 (83.9) 46 (80.7)  
 Mild 1(3.2) 3(5.3)  
 Moderate 3(9.7) 7(12.3)  
 Massive 1(3.2) 1(1.7)  
Child-Pugh scoreb    0.03
 A 25 (80.6) 33 (57.9)  
 B 6 (19.4) 24 (42.1)  
Tumor descriptionb    0.83
Number of tumors
 1 6 (19.4) 11(19.3)  
 2 4 (12.9) 9(15.8)  
 ≥ 3 21 (67.7) 37 (64.9)  
Size of largest tumor, median (cm) 7.00 8.5 0.34
Angiography of PVTT feeding-artery
 Timea (seconds) 8.65 ± 1.74  
 Pressurea (MPa) 243.55 ± 92.86  
 Speeda (ml/s) 1.63 ± 0.43  
Procedure
 Total procedure Timea (hour) 1.92 ± 0.62 0.62 ± 0.18 < 0.001
 Alcohola (ml) 7.77 ± 3.95  
 Epirubicina (mg) 50.00 50.00  
 Number of sessions 2.42 ± 1.71 1.89 ± 0.98 0.18
Laboratory Tests    
 Total bilirubin levela (μmol/L) 22.15 ± 12.63 20.91 ± 9.19 0.60
 Albumin levela (g/L) 39.22 ± 8.12 41.68 ± 5.91 0.11
 α-Fetoproteinb (ng/mL)    0.34
 < 200 10 (23.8) 22 (38.6)  
 200–1000 4 (29) 11 (19.3)  
 > 1000 17 (42.9) 24 (42.1)  
 Prothrombin timea (seconds) 12.86 ± 1.66 13.01 ± 1.17 0.42
 Thrombin timea (seconds) 19.41 ± 2.35 19.71 ± 1.23 0.63
  1. aMean ± standard deviation (SD); bn (%)