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Table 8 Comparison of main findings of studies assessing the clinical progress of patients treated for non-metastatic breast cancer

From: Evolutionary aspects of non-metastatic breast cancer after primary treatment in a sub-Saharan African setting: a 16-year retrospective review at the Douala general hospital, Cameroon

Authors and location Investigation Study design and study population Main findings
Millar et al. 2009, Australia [10] Prediction of LR, DM, and Death After Breast-Conserving Therapy in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Using a 5-Biomarker Panel Randomized clinical trial:498 cases Median follow-up: 84 months. Ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence:24 (4.8%), LR:35 (7%), DM:47 (9.4%), and cancer deaths:37 (7.4%). Overall 5-year disease-free rates: ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence,97.4%; LR,95.6%; DM: 92.9%, and cancer–specific death:96.3%. Significant difference in survival between subtypes (of invasive breast cancer) for LR, DM and breast cancer–specific death
Diniz et al. 2016, Brazil (South America) [11] Disease-free survival in patients with NMBC Three-year retrospective single-centre study:563 cases Disease recurrence noted in 129 cases:17.8% LR; 54.3% DM and 27.9% died. Disease free survival at 5 years:72%
Budakoglu et al. 2014, Turkey (Eurasia) [12] Outcome of triple negative NMBC patients Eleven-year multi-center retrospective study:561 cases Ratio of triple-negative breast cancer:12%. Median patient follow-up was 28 months (range 3–290). Most commonly variant was invasive ductal carcinoma (84.1%). Grade II and III tumours were 27.1 and 48.5%, respectively. DM occurred in 134 (23.8%) patients and was mainly to bone, soft tissue, and lung. Factors affecting DFS and OS: age, lymph node involvement, lymphovascular invasion, tumour stage, adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and type of surgery (not significant for DFS). Three-year DFS and OS:72.0 and 93.0%, respectively
Jamshed et al. 2015, India (Asia) [13] Clinical outcome of primary NMBC: A single institution experience Fifteen-year single-center retrospective study:2829 cases The median follow-up: 4.4 years. Recurrence following primary treatment was seen in 35% of the patients: 5% local, 1% regional, and 29% distant. At time of last follow-up: 960 patients were dead and 1869 (66%) were alive of which 112 were alive with disease. Cause of dead: breast cancer in 922 patients, treatment related toxicity in 8 patients and non-cancer related in 30 patients.
Alieldin et al. 2014, Egypt (North Africa) [14] Age at diagnosis in women with NMBC: Is it related to prognosis? One-year single-center retrospective study:941 cases Most presented with advanced disease. All relapse: 44.2%; DM: 33.5%; LR: 6.6%. Women below 40 years of age had higher recurrence rates and poorer prognosis
Mathew et al. 2004, India (Asia) [15] Do younger women with non-metastatic non-inflammatory breast carcinoma have poor prognosis? Ten-year single-center prospective study:1701 cases Median follow-up period: 66 months. Six hundred and forty (38%) were dead while 556 were not cured. Of the 556 patients, 125 (22.4%) had metastasis in bone (7.1% spine), 41 (7.3%) in liver, 40 (7.1%) in lung, 34 (6.1%) in brain, 20 (3.5%) in opposite breast and 169 (30.3%) had multiple metastasis. Women <40 years with T3/T4 breast lesions and/or positive axillary nodes had a significantly poorer survival
Our study, Cameroon
(Central Africa)
Evolutionary aspects of NMBC after primary treatment in a sub-Saharan African setting Sixteen-year single-center retrospective study:260 cases Median follow up period: 24 months. Majority of patients had invasive ductal carcinoma. Metastases occurred in 142/260 (54.6%): 68/142 (26.2%) LR and 74/142 (28.5%) DM. DM: 9.2% bone, 8.5% lungs, 6.9% nodal, and 5.4% brain; 4.7% multiple metastasis. Median periods of occurrence of LR and DM: 3 and 12 months respectively. Sequelae were noted in 26/260 (10%), after an average of 30 months. Main sequelae: lymphedema (6.5%) and lung fibrosis (1.5%). At the end of review period, 118/260 patients (45.4%) were alive and disease-free.
  1. NMBC Non-metastatic breast cancer, LR Local Relapse/Recurrence, DM Distant metastasis, DS Disease free survival, OS Overall survival