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Table 2 Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between selected risk factors and risk of colorectal cancer

From: Attributable causes of colorectal cancer in China

Risk factors RR (95% CI) Sources
Men Women Design
Smoking 1.16 (1.09–1.24) 1.16 (1.09–1.24) Meta-analysis 30
Alcohol drinking 1.24 (1.01–1.54) 1.24 (1.01–1.54) Cohort study 31
Overweight 1.25 (1.07–1.45) 1.25 (1.07–1.45) Cohort study 32
Obesity 1.57 (1.23–2.00) 1.57 (1.23–2.00)   
Physical inactivity 1.32 (1.23–1.41) 1.27 (1.17–1.41) Meta-analysis 33
Vegetable intakea: Urban     12
Quintile 5 1.00 1.00  
Quintile 4 1.12 (1.04–1.19) 1.10 (1.03–1.16)  
Quintile 3 1.20 (1.06–1.34) 1.18 (1.05–1.30)  
Quintile 2 1.30 (1.09–1.51) 1.27 (1.08–1.46)  
Quintile 1 1.52 (1.14–1.95) 1.46 (1.13–1.83)  
Vegetable intakea: rural    Meta-analysis 12
Quintile 5 1.00 1.00  
Quintile 4 1.12 (1.04–1.19) 1.10 (1.03–1.16)  
Quintile 3 1.21 (1.06–1.35) 1.19 (1.06–1.31)  
Quintile 2 1.30 (1.09–1.52) 1.27 (1.08–1.46)  
Quintile 1 1.50 (1.14–1.92) 1.46 (1.13–1.83)  
Fruit intakea: urban    Meta-analysis 12
Quintile 5 1.00 1.00  
Quintile 4 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 1.05 (1.02–1.09)  
Quintile 3 1.06 (1.02–1.11) 1.07 (1.02–1.13)  
Quintile 2 1.09 (1.03–1.15) 1.10 (1.03–1.17)  
Quintile 1 1.12 (1.04–1.21) 1.13 (1.04–1.23)  
Fruit intakea: rural    Meta-analysis 12
Quintile 5 1.00 1.00  
Quintile 4 1.06 (1.02–1.10) 1.09 (1.03–1.15)  
Quintile 3 1.07 (1.02–1.12) 1.11 (1.03–1.19)  
Quintile 2 1.09 (1.03–1.16) 1.13 (1.04–1.23)  
Quintile 1 1.12 (1.04–1.20) 1.16 (1.05–1.28)  
Red and processed meata: urban    Meta-analysis 11
Quintile 1 1.00 1.00  
Quintile 2 1.07 (1.02–1.11) 1.04 (1.01–1.07)  
Quintile 3 1.12 (1.03–1.20) 1.09 (1.03–1.15)  
Quintile 4 1.17 (1.05–1.29) 1.14 (1.04–1.24)  
Quintile 5 1.27 (1.07–1.48) 1.22 (1.06–1.38)  
Red and processed meata: rural    Meta-analysis 11
Quintile 1 1.00 1.00  
Quintile 2 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 1.04 (1.01–1.07)  
Quintile 3 1.08 (1.02–1.14) 1.07 (1.02–1.11)  
Quintile 4 1.12 (1.03–1.21) 1.12 (1.03–1.20)  
Quintile 5 1.20 (1.06–1.34) 1.17 (1.05–1.29)  
  1. aRRs were first transformed onto a log scale and divided by 100 to give the log RR/g per day, then multiplied by the lower intake in each quintile, finally, the RRs in other quintiles were divided by that in quintile 5 (vegetable and fruit) or quintile 1 (red and processed meat) to get the final RRs, and the RR in quintile 5 (vegetable and fruit) or quintile 1 (red and processed meat) was assumed to be equal to 1