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Table 2 Cancer incidence and hazard ratios of farm, rural non-farm and urban women, 2006–2009

From: Comparison of cancer incidence in Australian farm residents 45 years and over, compared to rural non-farm and urban residents - a data linkage study

Cancer Type (ICD9)a Cohort Residence Cases Standardised Adjusted Hazard ratios (95% CI) for variables remaining in final model (excl. Age) / other notes
No. incident cases and total person-years n = 143,192 Rate Ratio (95% Cl) Hazard Ratio (95% Cl)
All malignant neoplasms (excl. non melanoma skin cancer)b Farm n = 10,549 295 88.0 (75.8–100.2) 1.00 (ref) • Age b
C00 - C98 (excl. C44) Rural non-farm n = 69,463 2472 102.0 (98.0–106.0) 1.14 (1.01–1.29) • Overweight & obesity status
n = 5011
Person-years = 513,232
Urban n = 63,180 2244 100.1 (95.9–104.2) 1.12 (0.99–1.27)  yes vs no HR = 1.06 (1.00–1.13)
• Smoking status
 never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 1.19 (1.12–1.27)
 current HR = 1.11 (0.98–1.25)
Breast Farm 117 87.0 (69.6–104.5) 1.00 (ref) • Age b
(C50) Rural non-farm 863 100.5 (93.8–107.3) 1.06 (0.87–1.29) • Family history breast cancer
n = 1762
Person-years = 548,760
Urban 782 101.6 (94.5–108.8) 1.06 (0.86–1.29)  yes vs no HR = 1.58 (1.39–1.79)
• Overweight & obesity status
 yes vs no HR = 1.13 (1.03–1.25)
• Smoking status
 never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 1.11 (1.00–1.23)
 current HR = 0.78 (0.62–0.98)
• Weekday sun exposure
 < 1 h HR = 1.33 (1.10–1.61)
 1–4 h HR = 1.12 (0.99–1.27)
 > 4 h HR = 1.00 ref.
Colorectal Farm 48 97.3 (33.4–128.3) 1.00 (ref) • Ageb
(C18 - C21) Rural non-farm 411 104.7 (94.9–114.9) 1.03 (0.76–1.40) • Family history colorectal cancer
n = 815
Person-years = 550,743
Urban 356 95.4 (85.4–105.5) 0.95 (0.70–1.29)  yes vs no HR = 1.27 (1.07–1.52)
• Smoking status
 never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 1.21 (1.06–1.41)
 current HR = 0.93 (0.65–1.33)
Lung Farm 7 48.1 (8.8–117.8) 1.00 (ref) • Ageb
(C34) Rural non-farm 157 106.3 (89.5–123.0) 1.82 (0.80–4.15) • Smoking status
n = 300
Person-years = 551,870
Urban 136 101.8 (84.5–119.1) 1.83 (0.80–4.22)  never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 3.58 (2.54–5.07)
 current HR = 9.51 (6.17–14.65)
• Annual household income $70,000 and over/yr remained as a non-significant confounder (p = .09)
Melanoma Farm 41 103.3 (65.4–141.2) 1.00 (ref) • Ageb p < .01
(C43) Rural non-farm 332 110.3 (98.3–122.2) 1.11 (0.79–1.56) • Family history melanoma
n = 622
Person-years = 551,022
Urban 249 89.6 (78.4–100.8) 0.95 (0.67–1.34)  yes vs. no HR = 2.08 (1.68–2.57)
• Weekday sun exposure
 < 1 h HR = 1.20 (0.89–1.61)
 1–4 h HR = 1.00 ref
 > 4 h HR = 1.32 (1.09–1.60)
• Tannability (response of skin repeatedly exposed to sunlight in summer without protection)
 very tan HR = 1.00 ref
 moderate tan HR = 1.46 (1.13–1.89)
 mild tan HR = 1.76 (1.35–2.29)
 never tan/freckle HR = 2.32 (1.74–3.09)
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Farm 13 122.4 (55.5–210.0) 1.00 (ref) • Ageb
(C82 - C85) Rural non-farm 93 91.8 (73.0–110.6) 1.15 (0.55–2.39) • Annual household income $70,000 and over/yr remained a non-significant confounder (p = .62)
n = 211  Person-years = 551,833 Urban 105 108.8 (87.8–130.0) 1.30 (0.62–2.70)
  1. aICD9 - International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision
  2. bAll models included age stratified by five-year age-bands at risk. Age remained significant in all models, but stratified hazard ratios are not reported