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Table 2 Effectiveness of intervention components to improve fecal testing for CRC among clinic-based study arms, N (%)

From: A systematic review of clinic and community intervention to increase fecal testing for colorectal cancer in rural and low-income populations in the United States – How, what and when?

Intervention components grouped by strategic aim Active intervention arms grouped by effectiveness, N (%)a Referent group (usual care/ control arms)
Highly effective Effective Marginal/null effect
Increase Community Demandb
 Client reminder or recall 7 (77.8) 7 (58.3) 2 (33.3) 0 (0.0)
 Small media 5 (55.6) 6 (50.0) 5 (83.3) 2 (10.0)
 One-on-one education 3 (33.3) 4 (33.3) 4 (66.7) 2 (10.0)
Increase Community Access
  Reducing structural barriers     
▪ Provider ordered in-clinic distribution 7 (77.8) 6 (50.0) 1 (16.7) 12 (60.0)
▪ Systematic distribution by clinic staff study team 2 (22.2) 5 (41.7) 3 (50.0) 6 (30.0)
▪ Direct mail 8 (88.9) 5 (41.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
▪ Pre-addressed stamped envelope provided 8 (88.9) 5 (41.7) 2 (33.3) 1 (5.0)
▪ Kit available by participant request 1 (11.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (16.7) 1 (5.0)
  Reducing out-of-pocket costs 0 (0.0) 1 (8.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (5.0)
Increase Provider Delivery of Screening Services
 Provider assessment and feedback 1 (11.1) 2 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (10.0)
 Provider incentives 1 (11.1) 1 (8.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (10.0)
 Provider reminder and recall systems 3 (33.3) 2 (16.7) 1 (16.7) 1 (5.0)
Other c
 Patient navigators 4 (44.4) 4 (33.3) 2 (33.3) 0 (0.0)
 Patient questionnaires or surveys about CRC screening knowledge and behaviors 0 (0.0) 2 (16.7) 3 (50.0) 3 (15.0)
 Materials tailored for specific cultures or low literacy 5 (55.6) 5 (41.7) 1 (16.7) 2 (10.0)
Total combined study arms in 20 clinic-based studies 9 (100.0) 12 (100.0) 6 (100.0) 20 (100.0)
Average number of intervention components per study arm 6.0 4.6 4.0 1.7
  1. a Percent of the total number of study arms in each column
  2. b We do not report on client incentives, mass media, group education because these intervention components were not used in clinic-based studies
  3. c We do not report on leveraging social networks because this intervention component was not used in clinic-based studies